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Table 2 Associations of NSAID exposure with breast cancer risk (E3N cohort, 2004–2014)

From: Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women

Characteristics of exposure No. of cases HR1 (95% CI) HR2 (95% CI)
Any NSAID
 Never 596 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Ever 2268 1.07 (0.98–1.18) 1.02 (0.93–1.12)
 Never 596 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Occasional 845 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 1.03 (0.92–1.15)
 Recurrent 1423 1.09 (0.98–1.20) 1.01 (0.92–1.14)
 Never/occasional 1441 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Recurrent 1423 1.05 (0.97–1.13) 1.00 (0.92–1.08)
Types of NSAID
High-dose aspirin
  Never/occasional use 2763 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Recurrent use 101 1.06 (0.87–1.29) 1.02 (0.83–1.24)
Ibuprofen
  Never/occasional use 2659 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Recurrent use 205 0.93 (0.81–1.08) 0.91 (0.79–1.05)
Diclofenac
  Never/occasional use 2650 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Recurrent use 214 1.01 (0.88–1.17) 0.98 (0.85–1.14)
Piroxicam
  Never/occasional use 2651 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Recurrent use 213 1.06 (0.92–1.22) 1.03 (0.90–1.19)
Ketoprofen
  Never/occasional use 2679 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Recurrent use 185 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 1.02 (0.88–1.19)
Selective COX-2 inhibitors
  Never/occasional use 2694 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Recurrent use 170 1.02 (0.87–1.20) 0.98 (0.84–1.15)
Other NSAIDs inhibiting preferentially COX-2
  Never/occasional use 2740 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Recurrent use 124 1.04 (0.87–1.25) 1.03 (0.86–1.24)
Other NSAIDs
  Never/occasional use 2547 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
  Recurrent use 317 1.07 (0.95–1.21) 1.04 (0.92–1.17)
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, COX cyclooxygenase, HR hazard ratio, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  2. 1Adjusted only for age (time scale)
  3. 2Adjusted for age (time scale), years of schooling (baseline), alcohol intake (time-varying), body mass index (time-varying), physical activity level (baseline), age at menarche (baseline), parity and age at first birth (baseline), lifetime use of oral contraceptives (baseline), age at menopause (baseline), history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (baseline), personal history of benign breast disease (time-varying), lifetime use of menopausal hormone therapy (time-varying), self-report of a mammogram performed during the previous follow-up cycle (time-varying), and other types of NSAIDs (except for “Any NSAID”) (time-varying). Categories used are those displayed in Table 1