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Table 3 Associations between PM2.5 components and gaseous pollutants and terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) counts

From: Outdoor air pollution and terminal duct lobular involution of the normal breast

  All women Premenopausal Postmenopausal
N RRa,b (95% CI) N RRa,b (95% CI) N RRa,b (95% CI)
PM2.5 components (μg/m3)
SO4
  Quartile 1 446 Ref. 323 Ref. 121 Ref.
  Quartile 2 526 1.20 (1.02, 1.40) 367 1.23 (1.02, 1.47) 158 1.13 (0.82, 1.54)
  Quartile 3 465 0.98 (0.84, 1.15) 303 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 160 0.99 (0.72, 1.36)
  Quartile 4 467 1.10 (0.93, 1.29) 329 1.14 (0.94, 1.37) 135 1.01 (0.72, 1.44)
  IQR increasec 1,904 1.04 (0.99, 1.08) 1,322 1.04 (0.99, 1.08) 574 1.05 (0.96, 1.14)
NO3
  Quartile 1 476 Ref. 319 Ref. 153 Ref.
  Quartile 2 444 1.00 (0.85, 1.17) 318 0.95 (0.79, 1.14) 122 1.19 (0.85, 1.68)
  Quartile 3 512 1.05 (0.90, 1.23) 354 1.00 (0.83, 1.20) 155 1.26 (0.91, 1.74)
  Quartile 4 476 1.08 (0.92, 1.27) 331 1.04 (0.86, 1.25) 144 1.28 (0.92, 1.77)
  IQR increasec 1,904 1.03 (0.98, 1.09) 1,322 1.01 (0.96, 1.08) 574 1.10 (0.99, 1.23)
NH4
  Quartile 1 478 Ref. 311 Ref. 163 Ref.
  Quartile 2 467 1.08 (0.92, 1.27) 345 1.02 (0.84, 1.22) 121 1.29 (0.92, 1.79)
  Quartile 3 551 0.97 (0.82, 1.14) 293 0.94 (0.78, 1.14) 155 1.09 (0.79, 1.50)
  Quartile 4 508 1.07 (0.91, 1.25) 373 1.00 (0.83, 1.20) 135 1.39 (1.01, 1.91)
  IQR increasec 1,904 1.05 (0.99, 1.11) 1,322 1.03 (0.96, 1.10) 574 1.15 (1.02, 1.30)
EC
  Quartile 1 474 Ref. 348 Ref. 125 Ref.
  Quartile 2 507 1.23 (1.05, 1.44) 359 1.27 (1.07, 1.52) 143 1.08 (0.77, 1.50)
  Quartile 3 406 1.02 (0.85, 1.21) 260 1.03 (0.84, 1.26) 144 1.01 (0.72, 1.40)
  Quartile 4 517 1.11 (0.94, 1.30) 355 1.10 (0.92, 1.32) 162 1.17 (0.85, 1.61)
  IQR increasec 1,904 1.05 (0.95, 1.15) 1,322 1.04 (0.94, 1.16) 574 1.09 (0.91, 1.31)
OC
  Quartile 1 477 Ref. 341 Ref. 134 Ref.
  Quartile 2 499 1.11 (0.95, 1.30) 361 1.13 (0.95, 1.36) 136 1.07 (0.77, 1.48)
  Quartile 3 424 1.12 (0.95, 1.32) 272 1.18 (0.97, 1.43) 150 0.99 (0.71, 1.36)
  Quartile 4 504 1.02 (0.87, 1.20) 348 1.03 (0.86, 1.24) 154 1.03 (0.75, 1.41)
  IQR increasec 1,904 1.01 (0.91, 1.11) 1,322 1.01 (0.90, 1.13) 574 1.05 (0.85, 1.29)
Gaseous pollutants (ppb)
CO
  Quartile 1 474 Ref. 342 Ref. 131 Ref.
  Quartile 2 510 1.18 (1.01, 1.39) 354 1.24 (1.03, 1.48) 152 1.00 (0.72, 1.39)
  Quartile 3 459 1.09 (0.93, 1.29) 317 1.15 (0.95, 1.38) 141 0.94 (0.68, 1.31)
  Quartile 4 561 1.08 (0.91, 1.27) 309 1.06 (0.88, 1.29) 150 1.11 (0.81, 1.52)
  IQR increasec 1,904 1.01 (0.92, 1.11) 1,322 1.01 (0.90, 1.12) 574 1.06 (0.87, 1.28)
NO
  Quartile 1 479 Ref. 350 Ref. 126 Ref.
  Quartile 2 471 1.21 (1.03, 1.41) 336 1.22 (1.02, 1.46) 132 1.12 (0.79, 1.57)
  Quartile 3 428 1.03 (0.87, 1.22) 274 1.06 (0.87, 1.29) 152 1.00 (0.73, 1.37)
  Quartile 4 526 1.08 (0.92, 1.27) 362 1.07 (0.89, 1.28) 164 1.17 (0.85, 1.60)
  IQR increasec 1,904 1.02 (0.94, 1.12) 1,322 1.02 (0.92, 1.12) 574 1.08 (0.91, 1.29)
NO2
  Quartile 1 474 Ref. 344 Ref. 129 Ref.
  Quartile 2 480 1.23 (1.05, 1.44) 339 1.28 (1.07, 1.54) 137 1.02 (0.73, 1.43)
  Quartile 3 491 1.05 (0.89, 1.24) 327 1.08 (0.89, 1.30) 161 1.00 (0.73, 1.37)
  Quartile 4 459 1.12 (0.95, 1.33) 312 1.13 (0.94, 1.37) 147 1.11 (0.80, 1.54)
  IQR increasec 1,904 1.03 (0.95, 1.13) 1,322 1.03 (0.93, 1.14) 574 1.07 (0.90, 1.26)
SO2
  Quartile 1 470 Ref. 323 Ref. 146 Ref.
  Quartile 2 435 1.20 (1.02, 1.41) 309 1.24 (1.02, 1.49) 124 1.02 (0.73, 1.42)
  Quartile 3 528 1.05 (0.90, 1.22) 355 1.02 (0.85, 1.22) 171 1.14 (0.84, 1.54)
  Quartile 4 471 1.04 (0.89, 1.23) 335 1.07 (0.88, 1.29) 133 0.97 (0.71, 1.34)
  IQR increasec 1,904 1.01 (0.94, 1.07) 1,322 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) 574 1.05 (0.92, 1.20)
  1. PM2.5 component (μg/m3) and gaseous pollutant concentrations (ppb) were estimated from “raw” CMAQ data
  2. aAdjusted for age, smoking status, education, race/ethnicity, BMI, and percent of fat on the slide
  3. bFrom a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. Zero model based on same covariates as main model
  4. cIQR increase: SO4 = 0.1 μg/m3, NO3 = 0.3 μg/m3, NH4 = 0.1 μg/m3, EC = 0.8 μg/m3, OC = 0.8 μg/m3, CO = 85.6 ppb, NO = 5.0 ppb, NO2 = 7.1 ppb, SO2 = 0.8 ppb