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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the intervention and control groups

From: Impact of a ketogenic diet intervention during radiotherapy on body composition: III—final results of the KETOCOMP study for breast cancer patients

Parameter KD group (n = 29) SD group (n = 30) p value
Age [years] 52 (29–78) 53 (25–68) 0.785
Body weight [kg] 74.2 (47.5–120) 70.0 (48.1–124.2) 0.336
BMI [kg/m2] 28.3 (19.9–45.2) 25.0 (18.8–43.0) 0.157
Fat mass [kg] 30.3 (13.3–65.6) 26.5 (12.0–69.9) 0.208
Fat free mass [kg] 44.2 (30.8–54.4) 43.0 (31.5–54.3) 0.596
Skeletal muscle mass [kg] 20.5 (11.5–26.2) 19.6 (13.2–23.8) 0.370
50 kHz phase angle [°] 4.98 (4.22–5.67) 4.65 (3.72–5.88) 0.050
Estrogen receptor status    0.423
Positive 27 (93.1%) 24 (80.0%)  
Negative 2 (6.9%) 5 (16.7%)  
Unknown 0 1 (3.3%)  
Progesterone receptor status    0.530
Positive 24 (82.8%) 21 (70%)  
Negative 5 (17.2%) 8 (26.7%)  
Unknown 0 1 (3.3%)  
HER2/neu status    0.790
Positive 11 (37.9%) 13 (43.3%)  
Negative 18 (62.1%) 16 (53.3%)  
Unknown 0 1 (3.3%)  
Affected breast    0.435
 Left 18 (62.1%) 15 (50%)  
 Right 11 (37.9%) 15 (50%)  
Smoking status    0.265
 No 15 10  
 Active 4 8  
 Formerly 10 12  
Tobacco consumption [pack years] 0 (0–60) 3 (0–30) 0.249
Radiotherapy fractions 28 (16–31) 28 (16–31) 0.449
PTV [cm3] 1092 (398–2091) 999 (345–2475) 0.383
Glucose [mg/dl] 99 (82–176) 96 (81–113) 0.197
β-OHB [mmol/l] 0.11 (0.01–0.45) 0.06 (0.02–0.29) 0.0188
Insulin [mU/l] 7.7 (2–45.6) 8.1 (2.5–27.2) 0.928
IGF-1 [ng/ml] 197 (45–364) 212 (116–348) 0.901
T3 [pg/ml] 3.13 (2.63–4.13) 3.16 (2.04–4.5) 0.823
Global quality of life score 66.7 (33.3–100) 66.7 (0–100) 0.981
  1. Continuous and categorical variables are presented as median (range) and frequencies, respectively. BMI body mass index, IGF-1 insulin-like growth factor 1, KD ketogenic diet, PTV planning target volume, SD standard diet