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Table 2 Breast cancer odds ratio (ORs) in relation to participant’s perinatal exposures

From: Perinatal and postnatal exposures and risk of young-onset breast cancer

Characteristics Controls (n = 1672) Cases (n = 1473) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Preeclampsia/eclampsia/toxemia
 No 1163 (98.4) 1026 (97.9) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 19 (1.6) 22 (2.1) 1.92 (0.82–4.51)¥ 2.28 (0.89–5.82)
Gestational hypertension§
 No 1121 (97.6) 968 (97.9) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 28 (2.4) 21 (2.1) 0.84 (0.44–1.59)¥ 1.00 (0.50–2.00)
Any hypertensive disorder
 No 1158 (96.1) 1029 (96.0) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 47 (3.9) 43 (4.0) 1.12 (0.66–1.91)¥ 1.40 (0.78–2.52)
Maternal smoking
 No 935 (70.6) 821 (70.0) 1.00  
 Yes 389 (29.4) 352 (30.0) 1.19 (0.81–1.74)*  
Low birth weight
 Birth weight > 5.5 pounds 1226 (93.2) 1082 (92.2) 1.00 1.00
 Birth weight ≤ 5.5 pounds 90 (6.8) 91 (7.8) 1.14 (0.80–1.62) 1.05 (0.70–1.59)Ŧ
High birth weight
 Birth weight < 8.8 pounds 881 (92.3) 771 (90.2) 1.00 1.00
 Birth weight ≥ 8.8 pounds 74 (7.87 84 (9.8) 1.59 (1.07–2.36) 1.44 (0.93–2.22)Ŧ
Breastfed
 No 780 (59.6) 726 (62.4) 1.00  
 Yes 528 (40.4) 437 (37.6) 0.76 (0.58–1.00)  
Soy-fed (formula made from soy)
 No 1021 (95.9) 898 (95.4) 1.00  
 Yes 44 (4.1) 43 (4.6) 1.04 (0.66–1.65)  
DES exposure during pregnancy
 No 1042 (97.0) 933 (97.4) 1.00  
 Yes 32 (3.0) 25 (2.6) 0.82 (0.44–1.54)  
Short gestational length at birth
 Born ≥ 38 weeks 561 (88.1) 490 (85.1) 1.00 1.00
 Born < 38 weeks 76 (11.9) 86 (14.9) 1.36 (0.91–2.02) 1.26 (0.83–1.92)Ŧ
  1. Counts including only participants with complete information on exposure of interest
  2. ¥Adjusted for whether or not the participant was their mother’s first baby and for maternal smoking in that pregnancy
  3. §Without preeclampsia/eclampsia
  4. *Adjusted by birth order
  5. Adjusted for whether or not the participant was their mother’s first baby, for maternal smoking in that pregnancy and excluding women who themselves had a preeclamptic pregnancy
  6. ŦAdjusted for mother’s preeclampsia and smoking during the participant’s gestation