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Table 3 Intraductal injection of ethanol reduces the risk of developing cancer in a C3(1)-TAg mouse model (tumor incidence at necropsy)

From: Ductal tree ablation by local delivery of ethanol prevents tumor formation in an aggressive mouse model of breast cancer

 Non-injected vs. non-injected glandsNon-injected vs. injected glands
Animal groupsTumor incidence (%, n)RR (95% CI)p valueTumor incidence (%, n)RR (95% CI)p value
Untreated vs. not injected34% (85/250) vs. 28% (28/100)1.21 (0.76–1.93)0.6848n/an/an/a
Untreated vs. PBS-injected34% (85/250) vs. 58% (25/43)0.58 (0.39–0.86)0.014734% (85/250) vs. 52% (30/57)0.64 (0.44–0.94)0.0347
Untreated vs. 50% EtOH-injecteda34% (85/250) vs. 36% (13/36)0.94 (0.51–1.72)0.992434% (85/250) vs. 16% (4/24)2.12 (0.67–6.70)0.2328
Untreated vs. 70% EtOH-injecteda34% (85/250) vs. 51% (30/58)0.65 (0.44–0.97)0.055534% (85/250) vs. 9.6% (5/52)3.53 (1.21–10.29)0.0048
Untreated vs. 70% EtOH-injectedb34% (85/250) vs. 57% (20/35)0.61 (0.39–0.94)0.059934% (85/250) vs. 7.3% (7/95)4.76 (1.89–11.97)< 0.00001
Within PBS-injectedn/an/an/a58% (25/43) vs. 52% (30/57)1.10 (0.77–1.57)0.6765
Within 50% EtOH-injectedan/an/an/a36% (13/36) vs. 16% (4/24)2.25 (0.83–6.13)0.0579
Within 70% EtOH-injectedan/an/an/a51% (30/58) vs. 9.6% (5/52)5.37 (2.24–12.86)< 0.00001
Within 70% EtOH-injectedbn/an/an/a57% (20/35) vs. 7.3% (7/95)7.77 (3.58–16.85)< 0.00001
  1. Tumor incidence indicates the number of glands with tumors at necropsy in each gland class (i.e., untreated, non-injection, or injected). Relative risk (RR) indicates the likelihood of having a tumor in one class of mammary glands vs. another within a treatment group (same animals) or among treatment groups (independent animals) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RR > 1 indicates a lower risk of tumor formation for that particular group or intervention compared to the reference group (reference vs. test). Logistic mixed-effects models with random intercepts for each animal and Tukey-adjusted linear contrasts were used for this per-gland analysis to account for multiplicity of tumor formation in the same animal. aEtOH was diluted in sterile PBS with iodine-containing contrast agent. bEtOH was diluted in sterile water