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Table 3 Geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) from mixed-effect regression models, stratified by median of thelarche, menarche, and thelarche-to-menarche tempo in relation to percent dense breast volume (%DBV)

From: Pubertal timing and breast density in young women: a prospective cohort study

 NumberMean (95% confidence interval)p value
Thelarche effect   
 Early menarche/short tempo6215.73 (14.3–17.30)Reference
 Early menarche/long tempo2918.84 (17.05–20.81)0.01
 Late menarche/short tempo2921.33 (18.99–23.97)< 0.001
 Late menarche/long tempo6220.88 (17.49–24.92)< 0.001
Menarche effect
 Early thelarche/short tempo2920.47 (16.18–25.91)Reference
 Early thelarche/long tempo6219.81 (17.49–22.44)0.82
 Late thelarche/short tempo6216.34 (14.64–18.23)0.11
 Late thelarche/long tempo2920.40 (16.52–25.20)0.98
  1. The means and 95% confidence intervals are generated from stratified models including the same covariates included in model 3 of Table 2. The following variables were adjusted as fixed effects: adult covariates, including parity (nulliparous vs parous), duration of hormone use (years, continuous), education (some college or less (reference), bachelor degree, graduate degree), race (white vs. non-white), smoking status (never vs ever), and whole-body percent fat measured by DXA (%, continuous), height (continuous), and BMI at 8–10 years of age expressed as a z-score relative to CDC 2000 Growth Charts. Clinic was adjusted for as a random effect