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Table 2 Geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) from mixed-effect regression models for each pubertal factor in relation to percent dense breast volume (%DBV)

From: Pubertal timing and breast density in young women: a prospective cohort study

Pubertal characteristicModel 1Model 2Model 3
Age at thelarche, years
 8.7 to < 9.919.56 (15.62–24.48)18.74 (16.93–20.76)20.83 (18.42–23.57)
 9.9 to < 10.419.36 (14.15–26.48)19.06 (16.24–22.36)19.50 (16.36–23.24)
 10.4 to < 11.116.27 (12.01–22.05)18.36 (14.54–23.19)17.79 (14.15–22.38)
 11.1+19.90 (12.41–31.91)18.72 (13.55–25.86)17.04 (13.28–21.86)
p trend0.560.940.04
Age at pubarche, years
 8.6 to < 10.322.08 (18.18–26.81)19.04 (16.9–21.45)20.84 (18.2–23.86)
 10.3 to < 10.917.31 (12.27–24.42)16.88 (11.9–23.94)16.97 (12.21–23.57)
 10.9 to < 11.516.20 (13.84–18.98)17.51 (14.91–20.56)17.73 (14.81–21.23)
 11.5+19.72 (13.74–28.32)21.66 (18.25–25.71)19.47 (17.38–21.83)
p trend0.870.390.64
Age at menarche, years
 10 to < 12.216.89 (13.04–21.87)15.96 (13.28–19.19)17.10 (14.15–20.66)
 12.2 to < 12.814.38 (12.03–17.19)15.39 (11.53–20.54)16.38 (12.4–21.65)
 12.8 to < 13.419.98 (15.19–26.27)22.90 (20.37–25.75)21.65 (19.36–24.21)
 13.4+25.96 (17.03–39.56)21.76 (16.41–28.86)20.18 (15.66–25.99)
p trend0.030.010.13
Thelarche-to-menarche tempo, years
  < 1.613.90 (10.23–18.88)15.45 (14.08–16.95)15.55 (13.85–17.47)
 1.6 to < 2.319.91 (16.02–24.76)18.88 (16.17–22.04)19.49 (16.89–22.5)
 2.3 to < 2.918.90 (13.14–27.18)18.47 (15.77–21.62)18.38 (15.7–21.51)
 2.9+24.85 (16.51–37.40)22.55 (17.8–28.56)21.84 (18.18–26.24)
p trend0.010.0040.007
Pubarche-to-menarche tempo, years
 < 1.114.40 (10.03–20.66)15.9 (12.23–20.68)16.23 (12.3–21.41)
 1.1 to < 1.717.16 (13.85–21.26)18.69 (16.16–21.61)18.40 (16.82–20.14)
 1.7 to < 2.616.68 (11.20–24.85)17.85 (13.7–23.25)17.87 (13.88–23.02)
 2.6+29.09 (25.22–33.56)22.80 (20.25–25.68)22.66 (20.79–24.7)
p trend< 0.0010.060.06
  1. Model 1 is unadjusted
  2. Model 2 adjusts for the following variables as fixed effects: adult covariates, including parity (nulliparous vs parous), duration of hormone use (years, continuous), education (some college or less (reference), bachelor degree, graduate degree), race (white vs. non-white), smoking status (never vs ever), whole-body percent fat measured by DXA (%, continuous), and height (continuous). Clinic included as a random effect
  3. Model 3 adjusts for the same factors in model 2, and in addition, BMI at 8–10 years of age expressed as a z-score relative to CDC 2000 Growth Charts (continuous)