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Table 1 Postdiagnosis characteristics of the population by change in recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity pre- and postdiagnosis

From: Pre- to postdiagnosis leisure-time physical activity and prognosis in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors

  Total Pre- and postdiagnosis leisure-time physical activity
Insufficiently activea Increasingly active Decreasingly active Sufficiently active
n (%) 2042 (100.0) 1037 (50.8) 348 (17.0) 285 (14.0) 372 (18.2)
Age at diagnosis, years, median (IQR)b 62.9 (58.6–66.4) 63.4 (59.1–67.1) 61.9 (58.0–65.3) 64.1 (59.5–67.1) 61.1 (57.3–64.4)
Physical activity prediagnosis, median (IQR)
 Walking (hours/week)b 6.0 (3.2–9.0) 6.0 (3.0–9.0) 6.0 (3.5–9.0) 7.0 (3.5–10.5) 6.0 (3.3–9.0)
 Cycling (hours/week)b 1.2 (0.0–3.5) 1.0 (0.0–3.5) 1.4 (0.0–4.0) 1.8 (0.0–4.0) 2.0 (0.0–4.0)
 Total (MET-h/week)b 43.1 (26.5–65.6) 35.0 (20.0–56.0) 38.7 (24.2–57.1) 59.2 (41.1–85.6) 59.5 (41.7–78.7)
Physical activity postdiagnosis, median (IQR)
 Walking (hours/week)b 6.0 (3.0–10.0) 6.0 (3.0–8.0) 6.0 (4.0–10.0) 6.0 (3.0–10.0) 7.0 (4.0–10.0)
 Cycling (hours/week)b 1.0 (0.0–3.0) 0.0 (0.0–2.3) 2.0 (0.0–4.0) 1.0 (0.0–3.0) 2.0 (0.0–3.5)
 Total (MET-h/week)b 40.0 (23.4–66.0) 29.6 (16.0–48.0) 56.6 (37.3–80.1) 33.1 (17.2–56.0) 62.2 (40.3–95.6)
BMI, median (IQR)b 25.3 (22.9–28.4) 25.8 (23.3–29.4) 25.0 (22.8–28.3) 24.8 (22.9–27.7) 24.4 (22.5–27.1)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Never 1108 (54.3) 580 (55.9) 179 (51.4) 157 (55.1) 192 (51.6)
 Former 748 (36.6) 341 (32.9) 141 (40.5) 105 (36.8) 161 (43.3)
 Current 186 (9.1) 116 (11.2) 28 (8.0) 23 (8.1) 19 (5.1)
Alcohol, g/day, median (IQR)b 0.7 (0.0–5.7) 0.6 (0.0–5.4) 0.7 (0.0–5.7) 2.0 (0.0–7.1) 1.4 (0.0–8.3)
Education, n (%)b
 Less than high/middle school 1141 (55.9) 659 (63.5) 182 (52.3) 151 (53.0) 149 (40.1)
 High/middle school 583 (28.6) 268 (25.8) 108 (31.0) 79 (27.7) 128 (34.4)
 College or university 318 (15.6) 110 (10.6) 58 (16.7) 55 (19.3) 95 (25.5)
Menopausal hormone use, n (%) 1000 (49.0) 483 (46.6) 171 (49.1) 150 (52.6) 196 (52.7)
Tumour size, cm, n (%)
 < 2 1159 (56.8) 566 (54.6) 199 (57.2) 168 (58.9) 226 (60.8)
 2–5 622 (30.5) 336 (32.4) 101 (29.0) 86 (30.2) 99 (26.6)
 > 5 and growth into chest wall/skin 73 (3.6) 46 (4.4) 11 (3.2) 8 (2.8) 8 (2.2)
 Neoadjuvant chemotherapyc 61 (3.0) 32 (3.1) 11 (3.2) 6 (2.1) 12 (3.2)
 In situ3 124 (6.1) 54 (5.2) 26 (7.5) 17 (6.0) 27 (7.3)
Number of positive lymph nodes, n (%)
 0 1322 (64.7) 690 (66.5) 209 (60.1) 170 (59.6) 253 (68.0)
 1–3 400 (19.6) 183 (17.6) 72 (20.7) 79 (27.7) 66 (17.7)
 > 3 135 (6.6) 78 (7.5) 30 (8.6) 13 (4.6) 14 (3.8)
Tumour grade, n (%)
 Low/moderate 1422 (69.6) 720 (69.4) 240 (69.0) 197 (69.1) 265 (71.2)
 High 426 (20.9) 223 (21.5) 71 (20.4) 64 (22.5) 68 (18.3)
Hormone receptor status, n (%)
 ER+/PR+ 1238 (60.6) 628 (60.6) 208 (59.8) 175 (61.4) 227 (61.0)
 ER+/PR−, ER−/PR+ 344 (16.8) 174 (16.8) 55 (15.8) 51 (17.9) 64 (17.2)
 ER−/PR− 275 (13.5) 149 (14.4) 48 (13.8) 36 (12.6) 42 (11.3)
HER2 status, n (%)
 HER2+ 312 (15.3) 159 (15.3) 63 (18.1) 46 (16.1) 44 (11.8)
 HER2− 1413 (69.2) 715 (68.9) 228 (65.5) 197 (69.1) 273 (73.4)
 Missing, n (%) 132 (6.5) 77 (7.4) 20 (5.7) 19 (6.7) 16 (4.3)
Type of surgery, n (%)
 Mastectomy 55 (2.7) 24 (2.3) 11 (3.2) 9 (3.2) 11 (3.0)
 Mastectomy + axilla 478 (23.4) 266 (25.7) 85 (24.4) 57 (20.0) 70 (18.8)
 Breast-conserving therapy 181 (8.9) 86 (8.3) 31 (8.9) 25 (8.8) 39 (10.5)
 Breast-conserving therapy + axilla 1326 (64.9) 660 (63.6) 221 (63.5) 193 (67.7) 252 (67.7)
Mode of tumour detection, n (%)b
 Self-detected by palpation/secretion/pain 1007 (49.3) 550 (53.0) 151 (43.4) 136 (47.7) 170 (45.7)
 Routine examination, mammography, ultrasound 1031 (50.5) 485 (46.8) 195 (56.0) 149 (52.3) 202 (54.3)
Chemotherapy, n (%) 917 (44.9) 481 (46.4) 163 (46.8) 127 (44.6) 146 (39.2)
Radiation therapy, n (%) 1627 (79.7) 828 (79.8) 274 (78.7) 230 (80.7) 295 (79.3)
Hormone therapy, n (%) 1651 (80.9) 842 (81.2) 276 (79.3) 228 (80.0) 305 (82.0)
Diabetes, n (%)b 239 (11.7) 162 (15.6) 21 (6.0) 32 (11.2) 24 (6.5)
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)b 1349 (66.1) 737 (71.1) 227 (65.2) 180 (63.2) 205 (55.1)
Osteoporosis, n (%) 452 (22.1) 241 (23.2) 74 (21.3) 69 (24.2) 68 (18.3)
  1. aInsufficiently active is defined as having between 0 and 7.5 MET-h/week of leisure-time physical activity; sufficiently active is defined as having ≥ 7.5 MET-h/week of leisure-time physical activity
  2. bStatistically significant differences in patient characteristics between physical activity groups tested by ANOVA (p < 0.05 for statistical significance)
  3. cAlso for number of positive lymph nodes, tumour grade, ER/PR status, and HER2 status