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Fig. 3 | Breast Cancer Research

Fig. 3

From: Investigating circulating tumor cells and distant metastases in patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models of triple-negative breast cancer

Fig. 3

Growth rate and metastases in PDOX models of TNBC. a For individual animals, tumor fragments from previously derived and passaged PDOX tumors were implanted orthotopically in the fourth mammary fat pad and tumor volume was measured over time; at the end of the experiment, cardiac blood was collected for CTC isolation, and multiple organs were analyzed for metastases. b Representative growth curves for seven different PDOX tumor models grown in NSG mice. c Metastases were identified in the lung, liver, and rarely, brain of mice bearing the human TNBC tumors (H&E, × 20 and × 40 magnifications). Pulmonary metastases were found within alveolar septal capillaries or medium- to small-caliber vessels, where they were associated with peri-tumoral fibrin (black triangle) and/or desmoplasia (white arrow). Hepatic metastases were randomly distributed within hepatic sinusoids. Mitotic figures (black arrows) were frequently identified within metastatic foci

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