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Table 2 Breast cancer treatment initiation within 1 year of diagnosis in the ABC-DO cohort: percentage untreated and odds ratios for initiating treatment associated with socio-demographic, comorbidities and stage at diagnosis

From: Inequities in breast cancer treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: findings from a prospective multi-country observational study

  Women not treated
227 (17.2%)
Women treated
1098 (82.8%)
Odds ratios for initiating treatment within 12 months of diagnosis Test for interaction with population group
N (row %), all sites combined OR (95% CI)A OR (95% CI)B p
Stage at breast cancer diagnosis      0.408
 I and II 47 (10.4) 403 (89.6) 1 1  
 III 101 (16.9) 496 (83.1) 0.86 (0.57 to 1.28) 0.96 (0.63 to 1.45)  
 IV 41 (20.1) 163 (79.9) 0.60 (0.36 to 0.98) 0.63 (0.37 to 1.07)  
 Unknown 38 (51.4) 36 (48.6) 0.26 (0.14 to 0.45) 0.26 (0.14 to 0.48)  
Age at diagnosis      0.640
 < 40 64 (20.9) 243 (79.1) 0.70 (0.44 to 1.10) 0.68 (0.42 to 1.10)  
 40–< 50 65 (17.4) 308 (82.6) 0.83 (0.53 to 1.30) 0.77 (0.48 to 1.23)  
 50–< 60 46 (14.3) 276 (85.7) 1 1  
 60–< 70 32 (16.2) 165 (83.8) 0.76 (0.44 to 1.30) 0.74 (0.42 to 1.31)  
 ≥ 70 20 (15.8) 107 (84.2) 0.48 (0.25 to 0.93) 0.57 (0.29 to 1.16)  
SEP      0.917
 Low 129 (21.5) 408 (78.5) 1 1  
 Middle 56 (15.1) 382 (84.9) 1.20 (0.81 to 1.79) 1.17 (0.77 to 1.76)  
 High 42 (11.8) 246 (88.2) 2.40 (1.56 to 3.69) 2.45 (1.53 to 3.90)  
Employment      0.941
 Unskilled 172 (18.8) 751 (81.2) 0.70 (0.48 to 1.02) 0.83 (0.56 to 1.23)  
 Skilled 55 (13.8) 348 (86.2) 1 1  
BMI (kg/m2)      0.023
 < 18.5 9 (11.6) 124 (88.4) 1.58 (0.70 to 3.59) 1.83 (0.79 to 4.21)  
 18.5–25 103 (20.4) 404 (89.6) 1 1  
 25–30 67 (17.5) 315 (82.5) 1.09 (0.74 to 1.59) 0.96 (0.65 to 1.41)  
 30+ 35 (11.5) 269 (88.5) 1.76 (1.10 to 2.81) 1.53 (0.95 to 2.47)  
Residential area      0.123
 Urban 112 (16.5) 569 (83.5) 1 1  
 Rural 115 (17.9) 530 (82.1) 0.88 (0.61 to 1.25) 1.07 (0.73 to 1.56)  
Breast cancer knowledge     0.286
 Yes 170 (15.8) 905 (84.2) 1 1  
 No 57 (22.7) 194 (77.3) 0.80 (0.54 to 1.17) 0.81 (0.55 to 1.21)  
Belief in traditional medicine     0.013
 Yes 80 (25.2) 238 (74.8) 0.63 (0.44 to 0.89) 0.67 (0.47 to 0.97)  
 No 147 (14.6) 860 (83.4)    
Belief in spiritual healing     0.004
 Yes 149 (17.4) 727 (82.6) 1.18 (0.83 to 1.68) 1.21 (0.84 to 1.21)  
 No 78 (17.0) 371 (83.0) 1   
HIV statusC      n.a.
 Negative 61 (16.1) 1143 (83.9) 1 1  
 Positive 16 (32.0) 39 (68.0) 0.39 (0.19 to 0.79) 0.33 (0.16 to 0.70)  
  1. BC breast cancer, BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio, SEP socio-economic position
  2. AOR adjusted for the ABC-DO population group, breast cancer stage at diagnosis and age at diagnosis
  3. BOR adjusted for the ABC-DO population group, breast cancer stage at diagnosis, age at diagnosis, SEP, BMI and residential area
  4. CLogistic regression models restricted to the Ugandan women (N = 430)