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Table 1 Epidemiologic studies investigating environmental exposures during three windows of susceptibility in relation to an intermediate marker of breast cancer risk or breast cancer

From: Environmental exposures during windows of susceptibility for breast cancer: a framework for prevention research

First author (Year) Exposure Outcome Population Sample size Risk estimate 95% CI Notes
Exposure during prenatal window
 Bonner (2005) [33] Regional total suspended particulates Breast cancer Women 35–79, New York 1166 cases and 2105 controls OR 2.42 0.97–6.09 > 140 vs < 84 μg/m3 TSP, postmenopausal women
OR 1.78 0.62–5.10 > 140 vs < 84 μg/m3 TSP, premenopausal women
 Bocskay (2005) [32] Personal airborne PAH; PAH DNA adducts Chromosomal aberrations from cord blood Newborns in Northern Manhattan; Bronx 60 (32 female, 28 male) Data not shown for PAH adducts   “No strong association”
Airborne PAH
β = 0.14
p = 0.006 Linear regression line slope
 Cohn (2015) [25] Maternal o,p’-DDT Daughter breast cancer Mothers and adult daughters in Alameda County, CA 118 cases and 354 controls OR 3.7 1.5–9.0 Fourth vs first quartile (> 0.78 vs < 0.27 ng/mL)
Exposure during puberty window
 Tsai (2015) [82] Serum PFOA log-transformed SHBG Taiwanese girls aged 12–17 65 2.96 (SE 0.34) vs 3.50 (SE 0.24) p < 0.05 Mean PFOA levels 90th vs 50th percentile (> 9.80 vs < 3.63 ng/mL)
Data not shown p > 0.05 FSH and testosterone
 Wolff (2015) [57] Urinary phenols Age at breast development US girls aged 6–8 followed for 7 years 1239 girls Enterolactone: HR 0.79
Benzophenone-3: HR 0.80
Triclosan:
HR 1.17
2,5-dichlophenol: HR 1.37
0.64–0.98
0.65–0.98
0.96–1.43
1.09–1.72
5th vs 1st quintiles of biomarkers
 Wolff (2014) [58] Low and high molecular weight phthalate (MWP) metabolites from urine Age of breast and pubic hair development US girls aged 6–8 followed for 7 years 1239 girls Pubic hair development age: HR 0.91
Breast development age: HR 0.99
0.84–0.99
0.91–1.08
5th vs 1st quintiles of high MWP metabolites. Results null for low MWP metabolites.
 Wolff (2010) [59] Low and high molecular weight phthalate (MWP) metabolites from urine Stage of breast and pubic hair development US girls aged 6–8 followed for 1 year 1151 girls Pubic hair development:
PR 0.94
Breast development:
PR 1.03
0.88–1.00
0.97–1.10
5th vs 1st quintiles of high MWP metabolites. Results attenuated for low MWP metabolites (p = 0.08).
 Windham (2015) [60] PBDE, PCB, OCP Tanner stage 2+ vs 1 (breast development) US girls aged 6–8 followed for 7 years 645 girls PBDE: TR 1.05
PCB: TR 1.05
OCP: TR 1.10
1.02–1.08
1.01–1.08
1.06–1.14
4th vs 1st quartile. Results similar for pubic hair development.
 Cohn (2007, 2019) [67, 68] p,p’-DDT metabolites in serum taken after giving birth (initial DDT exposure likely before age 14 years) Breast cancer before age 50 Women in Child Health and Development Studies cohort 129 cases and 129 matched controls OR 5.4 1.7–17.1 Highest vs lowest tertile (> 13.90 vs < 8.09 μg/L)
Breast cancer diagnosis during ages 50–54 153 cases and 432 matched controls OR 1.88 1.37–2.59 One-unit change in log2 (p,p’-DDT), approximately equal to a 2-fold increase
Exposure during pregnancy
 Nie (2007) [115] Regional total suspended particulates at time of first birth Post-menopausal breast cancer Women 35–79 in Erie and Niagara Counties 220 cases and 301 controls OR 2.57 1.16–5.69 Highest vs lowest quartile
 Bonefeld-Jorgensen (2014) [83] 16 serum PFAS during pregnancy including 10 PFCA, 5 PFSA, and PFOSA Breast cancer Danish National Birth Cohort 250 cases and 233 controls PFOSA: RR 1.04
PFHxS: RR 0.66
0.99–1.08
0.47–0.94
Continuous per ng/ml. All other PFAS were null.
 Cohn (2012) [110] Serum PCB during early postpartum Breast cancer before age 50 Women in Child Health and Development Studies cohort 112 cases with matched controls PCB 167:
OR 0.24
PCB 187:
OR 0.35
PCB 203:
OR 6.34
0.07–0.79
0.11–1.14
1.85–21.7
Highest vs lowest quartile (> 0.30 vs < 0.08 mmol/l)
(> 0.66 vs < 0.38 mmol/l)
(> 0.42 vs < 0.34 mmol/l)
  1. Abbreviations: AA African American, BMI body mass index, FSH follicle-stimulating hormone, HR hazard ratio, IRR incidence rate ratio, NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, OR odds ratio, PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PFAS perfluoroalkylated substances, PFHxS perfluorohexanesulfonate, PFOA perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOSA perflurooctane-sulfonamide, PR prevalence ratio, RR relative risk, SHBG sex hormone-binding globulin, TR time ratio of median ages across quantile groups