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Table 2 Relationship of circulating unadjusted geometric mean concentrations of IGF-I and IGFP-1–7 (ng/mL) with select participant characteristics in premenopausal women

From: Relationship of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and binding proteins 1–7 with mammographic density among women undergoing image-guided diagnostic breast biopsy

Characteristics N IGF-I IGFBP-1 IGFBP-2 IGFBP-3 IGFBP-4 IGFBP-5 IGFBP-6 IGFBP-7
Mean1 (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI)
 Age at biopsy (years)
  < 45 56 131 (121–142) 1.08 (0.46–1.71) 340 (298–381) 3499 (3321–3678) 135 (126–143) 402 (378–425) 178 (167–189) 105 (100–110)
  45–49 83 123 (114–131) 0.78 (0.40–1.17) 344 (311–378) 3393 (3243–3542) 130 (123–137) 390 (366–414) 185 (178–193) 107 (102–111)
  ≥ 50 54 112 (104–120) 0.60 (0.21–0.99) 308 (263–354) 3511 (3328–3694) 128 (121–135) 363 (338–388) 199 (187–210) 111 (105–117)
  p trend (p het)   0.005 (0.02) 0.18 (0.88) 0.30 (0.4) 0.94 (0.53) 0.25 (0.50) 0.04 (0.11) 0.009 (0.03) 0.15 (0.31)
 Education
  ≤ High school grad/GED 27 107 (94–121) 3.69 (2.46-4.92) 326 (264–388) 3509 (3198–3820) 132 (120–144) 336 (307–365) 191 (178–205) 106 (96–115)
  Some college/tech school 37 122 (109–135) 2.42 (1.66-3.18) 277 (231–323) 3483 (3245–3721) 129 (120–138) 376 (351–401) 191 (181–201) 101 (95–107)
  ≥ College graduate 129 125 (119–131) 3.42 (2.95-3.88) 352 (324–380) 3438 (3326–3549) 131 (126–137) 400 (381–419) 185 (177–192) 110 (106–113)
  p trend (p het)   0.02 (0.05) 0.77 (0.11) 0.11 (0.03) 0.58 (0.86) 0.96 (0.89) 0.001 (0.005) 0.37 (0.62) 0.12 (0.05)
 Body mass index (kg/m2)
  < 25 97 124 (117–131) 2.06 (1.34–2.79) 399 (364–433) 3343 (3200–3485) 128 (121–134) 396 (375–418) 185 (177–192) 107 (103–112)
  25.0–29.9 48 122 (111–133) 0.91 (0.35–1.48) 340 (297–383) 3483 (3292–3675) 133 (125–141) 380 (357–404) 189 (177–201) 107 (102–113)
  ≥ 30 48 118 (107–128) 0.10 (0.04–0.16) 225 (200–250) 3670 (3506–3833) 136 (127–145) 370 (342–398) 189 (176–201) 108 (102–113)
  p trend (p het)   0.31 (0.59) < 0.0001 (< 0.0001) < 0.0001 (< 0.0001) 0.007 (0.03) 0.11 (0.27) 0.12 (0.29) 0.53 (0.76) 0.98 (0.99)
 Age at menarche (years)
  ≤ 12 69 122 (112–131) 0.79 (0.38–1.21) 320 (283–358) 3561 (3394–3728) 136 (129–144) 381 (351–411) 187 (177–197) 113 (107–119)
  13 73 122 (114–130) 0.99 (0.47–1.51) 343 (304–382) 3449 (3287–3611) 129 (123–136) 387 (367–401) 184 (175–193) 106 (102–110)
  ≥ 14 48 123 (114–132) 0.58 (0.19–0.97) 335 (290–380) 3342 (3162–3522) 128 (119–136) 394 (373–415) 191 (179–203) 104 (98–110)
  p trend (p het)   0.83 (0.97) 0.55 (0.71) 0.58 (0.67) 0.09 (0.23) 0.12 (0.25) 0.49 (0.78) 0.71 (0.65) 0.02 (0.05)
 Age at first birth (years)
  Nulliparous/ ≥ 30 years 94 118 (111–126) 0.83 (0.44–1.22) 338 (302–373) 3324 (3188–3461) 132 (125–139) 392 (370–414) 184 (176–192) 108 (104–113)
  < 30 years 98 126 (119–133) 0.77 (0.42–1.12) 329 (299–359) 3593 (3459–3727) 130 (124–135) 379 (361–398) 191 (183–199) 107 (103–111)
  p het   0.14 0.81 0.70 0.007 0.60 0.39 0.22 0.61
 Parity
  Nulliparous (0) 45 111 (100–122) 0.55 (0.15–0.96) 329 (274–383) 3251 (3052–3450) 130 (121–139) 378 (350–407) 179 (168–191) 102 (97–106)
  1 20 122 (108–135) 0.51 (0.003–1.02) 272 (220–325) 3414 (3124–3704) 136 (119–154) 394 (328–460) 180 (165–197) 116 (101–132)
  2 82 127 (119–134) 0.81 (0.41–1.21) 344 (309–378) 3528 (3388–3667) 128 (121–135) 390 (370–409) 190 (182–199) 109 (105–114)
  ≥ 3 46 126 (115–137) 1.36 (0.54–2.18) 346 (300–391) 3557 (3340–3774) 135 (127–142) 382 (354–411) 191 (179–204) 106 (101–111)
  p trend (p het)   0.02 (0.08) 0.05 (0.39) 0.35 (0.25) 0.02 (0.10) 0.76 (0.53) 0.81 (0.90) 0.09 (0.35) 0.35 (0.05)
Characteristics N IGF-I IGFBP-1 IGFBP-2 IGFBP-3 IGFBP-4 IGFBP-5 IGFBP-6 IGFBP-7
Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI)
 Oral contraceptive use
  Never 28 124 (108–139) 0.71 (0.06–1.35) 339 (280–399) 3372 (3108–3637) 123 (110–135) 397 (354–439) 196 (182–210) 104 (97–111)
  Former 165 122 (116–127) 0.82 (0.53–1.10) 331 (307–356) 3471 (3366–3575) 132 (128–137) 384 (369–399) 185 (179–192) 108 (105–111)
  p het   0.80 0.76 0.81 0.48 0.12 0.54 0.19 0.31
 Menopausal hormone use
  Never 169 123 (118–128) 0.88 (0.58–1.18) 342 (317–366) 3448 (3349–3546) 130 (126–135) 387 (371–402) 189 (183–195) 107 (104–111)
  Former 22 117 (100–133) 0.41 (−0.02–0.84) 267 (210–324) 3555 (3153–3958) 132 (118–146) 372 (338–407) 177 (157–196) 109 (101–118)
  p het   0.45 0.15 0.03 0.50 0.81 0.53 0.18 0.69
 Family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative
  None 145 124 (118–130) 0.74 (0.46–1.03) 331 (305–357) 3460 (3343–3577) 131 (126–136) 390 (373–407) 186 (179–192) 107 (103–111)
  1 or more 47 115 (108–123) 1.08 (0.45–1.71) 335 (286–385) 3426 (3258–3594) 131 (124–138) 376 (351–400) 189 (179–202) 109 (104–114)
  p het   0.15 0.33 0.88 0.77 0.93 0.39 0.52 0.64
 Cigarette smoking
  Never 100 126 (119–134) 0.89 (0.49–1.30) 339 (306–372) 3462 (3323–3601) 135 (129–141) 402 (383–421) 189 (181–198) 109 (105–113)
  Former 65 116 (109–124) 0.77 (0.36–1.18) 322 (283–360) 3417 (3264–3570) 123 (115–131) 368 (343–393) 182 (172–192) 105 (99–111)
  Current 20 118 (101–136) 0.54 (−0.08–1.16) 357 (292–423) 3566 (3215–3917) 141 (129–153) 346 (313–379) 195 (182–207) 108 (98–118)
  p trend (p het)   0.12 (0.19) 0.38 (0.11) 0.98 (0.65) 0.79 (0.70) 0.58 (0.01) 0.005 (0.02) 0.85 (0.36) 0.45 (0.42)
 Breast biopsy prior to enrollment
  Never 130 122 (116–128) 0.71 (0.43–0.99) 321 (295–347) 3433 (3311–3556) 132 (126–137) 388 (371–405) 184 (177–191) 109 (105–113)
  Ever 63 122 (113–131) 1.02 (0.45–1.58) 357 (311–402) 3504 (3348–3660) 129 (123–136) 381 (355–407) 194 (184–204) 104 (99–108)
  p het   0.94 0.31 0.16 0.51 0.63 0.66 0.10 0.09
 Biopsy diagnosis
  Benign non-proliferative 70 119 (111–126) 0.58 (0.26–0.91) 310 (277–343) 3425 (3277–3573) 137 (128–145) 401 (375–427) 180 (171–190) 107 (101–113)
  Proliferative with/without atypia 97 125 (118–133) 1.16 (0.66–1.66) 353 (317–389) 3467 (3329–3605) 128 (123–134) 382 (363–400) 189 (181–197) 108 (104–112)
  In situ/invasive 26 119 (102–137) 0.46 (0.03–0.88) 321 (264–377) 3502 (3181–3823) 124 (113–136) 361 (324–398) 198 (183–213) 107 (100–115)
  p trend (p het)   0.65 (0.49) 0.73 (0.07) 0.38 (0.21) 0.60 (0.87) 0.04 (0.10) 0.07 (0.19) 0.04 (0.13) 0.93 (0.97)
  1. CI confidence interval, IGF insulin-like growth factor, IGFBP IGF binding protein
  2. 1All IGF measures were log-transformed
  3. p values < 0.05 are in italics