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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate regression results for absolute dense area among Aboriginal (n = 499) and non-Aboriginal (n = 493) women with digitized film mammograms

From: The distribution and determinants of mammographic density measures in Western Australian aboriginal women

Dense area (cm2)a Aboriginal (n = 499) Non-Aboriginal (n = 493)
Characteristic Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
β (SE) P valueb β (SE) P valueb β (SE) P valueb β (SE) P valueb
Age at mammogram (per year) − 0.062 (0.010) <  0.001 − 0.055 (0.0091) <  0.001 − 0.078 (0.010) <  0.001 − 0.052 (0.0095) <  0.001
Non-dense area (per cm2) − 0.018 (0.002) <  0.001 − 0.017 (0.0016) <  0.001 − 0.020 (0.0016) <  0.001 − 0.018 (0.0016) <  0.001
HT use in the last 12 months 0.26 (0.35) 0.452    0.062 (0.24) 0.796   
Family history of breast cancer 0.71 (0.41) 0.086 0.77 (0.36) 0.034 0.048 (0.34) 0.887 0.11 (0.29) 0.693
ARIAc   0.552   0.693   0.014   0.050
 Major city Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Inner and outer regional 0.17 (0.29)   0.12 (0.25)   − 0.21 (0.26)   − 0.18 (0.23)  
 Remote 0.22 (0.29)   0.071 (0.26)   0.44 (0.27)   0.30 (0.23)  
 Very remote − 0.10 (0.25)   − 0.12 (0.22)   − 0.37 (0.25)   − 0.29 (0.21)  
Advantage and Disadvantage indexd,e   0.147   0.193   0.013   0.176
 1 (lowest) Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 2 0.47 (0.21)   0.35 (0.19)   0.37 (0.24)   0.20 (0.21)  
 3 0.38 (0.27)   0.25 (0.24)   0.72 (0.26)   0.38 (0.22)  
 4 (highest) 0.29 (0.42)   − 0.15 (0.37)   0.83 (0.31)   0.51 (0.26)  
Disadvantage indexd,f   0.005   0.019   0.075   0.292
 1 (lowest) Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 2 0.72 (0.21)   0.57 (0.19)   0.29 (0.24)   0.13 (0.21)  
 3 0.56 (0.26)   0.40 (0.23)   0.46 (0.26)   0.25 (0.22)  
 4 (highest) 0.61 (0.45)   0.14 (0.40)   0.75 (0.30)   0.47 (0.26)  
Economic Resources indexd,g   0.016   0.009   0.056   0.150
 1 (lowest) Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 2 0.58 (0.21)   0.59 (0.19)   0.50 (0.24)   0.39 (0.20)  
 3 0.62 (0.27)   0.50 (0.24)   0.64 (0.25)   0.36 (0.22)  
 4 (highest) 0.62 (0.41)   0.18 (0.36)   0.23 (0.31)   0.033 (0.27)  
Education and Occupation indexd,h   0.316   0.693   0.001   0.080
 1 (lowest) Reference   Reference   Reference   Reference  
 2 0.38 (0.23)   0.23 (0.20)   0.38 (0.30)   0.12 (0.26)  
 3 0.41 (0.27)   0.12 (0.24)   0.43 (0.30)   0.24 (0.26)  
 4 (highest) 0.41 (0.40)   0.19 (0.35)   1.2 (0.33)   0.64 (0.29)  
  1. SEIFA and ARIA indices were considered one at a time in all multivariate analyses to avoid collinearity. Effect measures in italics were included in the final model. Other effect measures were adjusted for age at mammogram, non-dense area and family history for both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women
  2. SE standard error, HT hormone therapy
  3. aSquare root transformed
  4. bP values are based on a − 2 log likelihood test
  5. cAccessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) scores
  6. dSEIFA scores are on a scale from 1 to 4, where 1 indicates the lowest 10% of the population in the state (least advantaged and most disadvantaged, most disadvantaged, least economic resources and least education and occupation opportunities) and 4 indicates the highest 30% of the population in the state (most advantage and least disadvantaged, least disadvantaged, most economic resources and most education/occupation opportunities)
  7. eIndex of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage based on Western Australian state rankings
  8. fIndex of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage based on Western Australian state rankings
  9. gIndex of Economic Resources based on Western Australian state rankings
  10. hIndex of Education and Occupation based on Western Australian state rankings