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Table 4 Air toxics and breast density by menopausal status at time of mammogram (Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, 2011)

From: Airborne metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in relation to mammographic breast density

Air toxics Premenopausal Postmenopausal Interaction p value2
Non-dense breasts Dense breasts Adjusted OR (95% CI)1 Non-dense breasts Dense breasts Adjusted OR (95% CI)1
Arsenic
 Quartile 1 6645 11,106 1.00 (reference) 24,575 14,980 1.00 (reference) < .0001
 Quartile 2 7541 8645 0.77 (0.73, 0.80) 24,505 11,549 0.81 (0.78, 0.83)
 Quartile 3 5709 11,450 1.33 (1.27, 1.39) 21,859 15,314 1.22 (1.18, 1.26)
 Quartile 4 6272 11,578 1.37 (1.31, 1.44) 25,368 15,485 1.14 (1.11, 1.18)
Cadmium
 Quartile 1 7212 8608 1.00 (reference) 26,631 15,671 1.00 (reference) < .0001
 Quartile 2 6482 10,043 1.09 (1.04, 1.14) 21,848 12,929 0.89 (0.86, 0.92)
 Quartile 3 5916 11,705 1.28 (1.22, 1.34) 21,721 13,969 0.90 (0.88, 0.93)
 Quartile 4 6557 12,423 1.26 (1.20, 1.32) 26,107 14,759 0.81 (0.78, 0.84)
Chromium
 Quartile 1 7846 9445 1.00 (reference) 29,629 16,597 1.00 (reference) < .0001
 Quartile 2 6591 9191 1.22 (1.17, 1.28) 21,455 12,010 0.99 (0.96, 1.02)
 Quartile 3 5988 12,352 1.53 (1.46, 1.61) 22,703 15,717 1.10 (1.06, 1.13)
 Quartile 4 5742 11,791 1.33 (1.27, 1.40) 22,520 13,004 0.83 (0.81, 0.86)
Cobalt
 Quartile 1 8427 7868 1.00 (reference) 28,128 12,269 1.00 (reference) < .0001
 Quartile 2 6149 10,203 1.33 (1.27, 1.40) 20,499 11,925 1.10 (1.06, 1.14)
 Quartile 3 5787 12,044 1.67 (1.59, 1.76) 22,628 15,712 1.34 (1.30, 1.39)
 Quartile 4 5804 12,664 1.98 (1.89, 2.08) 25,052 17,422 1.46 (1.41, 1.51)
Lead
 Quartile 1 8163 9090 1.00 (reference) 27,414 13,285 1.00 (reference) < .0001
 Quartile 2 6231 10,217 1.13 (1.08, 1.19) 23,673 13,802 1.02 (0.99, 1.05)
 Quartile 3 5931 12,124 1.50 (1.43, 1.57) 22,168 15,064 1.22 (1.18, 1.26)
 Quartile 4 5842 11,348 1.84 (1.76, 1.93) 23,052 15,177 1.45 (1.41, 1.50)
Manganese
 Quartile 1 6454 10,923 1.00 (reference) 25,816 17,227 1.00 (reference) < .0001
 Quartile 2 7463 9579 0.74 (0.71, 0.77) 24,957 13,144 0.76 (0.74, 0.78)
 Quartile 3 6208 10,509 0.91 (0.87, 0.96) 22,037 12,107 0.74 (0.71, 0.76)
 Quartile 4 6042 11,768 1.44 (1.37, 1.51) 23,497 14,850 1.09 (1.06, 1.12)
Mercury
 Quartile 1 7233 10,002 1.00 (reference) 24,582 13,073 1.00 (reference) 0.01
 Quartile 2 6131 10,818 1.17 (1.12, 1.22) 23,116 14,558 1.14 (1.10, 1.17)
 Quartile 3 6071 11,150 1.12 (1.07, 1.17) 22,864 15,122 1.14 (1.10, 1.17)
 Quartile 4 6732 10,809 0.97 (0.93, 1.01) 25,745 14,575 0.94 (0.91, 0.97)
Nickel
 Quartile 1 7712 7222 1.00 (reference) 24,890 11,079 1.00 (reference) < .0001
 Quartile 2 6311 11,293 1.54 (1.47, 1.62) 22,504 14,496 1.30 (1.25, 1.34)
 Quartile 3 5821 11,305 1.66 (1.58, 1.75) 22,794 15,729 1.38 (1.33, 1.43)
 Quartile 4 6323 12,959 1.58 (1.50, 1.65) 26,119 16,024 1.10 (1.06, 1.14)
Selenium
 Quartile 1 6605 7986 1.00 (reference) 26,015 14,427 1.00 (reference) < .0001
 Quartile 2 7458 10,826 1.08 (1.03, 1.13) 24,269 14,625 0.97 (0.95, 1.01)
 Quartile 3 5790 11,418 1.25 (1.19, 1.32) 20,616 13,475 0.95 (0.92, 0.98)
 Quartile 4 6314 12,549 1.21 (1.15, 1.28) 25,407 14,801 0.79 (0.77, 0.82)
PAH
 Quartile 1 8361 7722 1.00 (reference) 26,570 10,848 1.00 (reference) < .0001
 Quartile 2 6258 10,801 1.79 (1.71, 1.88) 22,960 14,030 1.50 (1.45, 1.55)
 Quartile 3 5790 11,640 1.75 (1.67, 1.84) 23,535 17,501 1.61 (1.56, 1.66)
 Quartile 4 5758 12,616 1.54 (1.46, 1.62) 23,242 14,949 1.16 (1.12, 1.20)
  1. 1Adjusted for age, race, zip code level income and education, and parity status
  2. 2p value from likelihood ratio test (df = 3) for models with and without inclusion of an interaction term between air toxic and menopausal status at time of mammogram