Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Meta-analyses on the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk

From: Associations between dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Subgroups Western Prudent
No. of studies RR (95% CI) P Heterogeneity χ2 I2 (%) P Heterogeneity P interaction No. of studies RR (95% CI) P Heterogeneity χ2 I2 (%) P Heterogeneity P interaction
Overall 34 1.14(1.02, 1.28) 0.017 225.1 85.3 < 0.001   35 0.82(0.75, 0.89) < 0.001 155.1 78.1 < 0.001  
Study design
 Case-control 17 1.35(1.08, 1.71) 0.009 180.3 91.1 < 0.001 0.021 18 0.70(0.59, 0.85) < 0.001 135.3 87.4 < 0.001 0.091
 Cohort 17 1.02(0.95, 1.09) 0.490 23.2 30.9 0.109   17 0.89(0.85, 0.93) < 0.001 14.3 0.0 0.577  
No of cases
 < 1000 16 1.34(1.03, 1.76) 0.031 128.8 88.4 < 0.001 0.050 17 0.66(0.54,0.82) < 0.001 88.8 82.0 < 0.001 0.023
 > 1000 18 1.03(0.96, 1.10) 0.43 40.1 57.6 0.001   18 0.90(0.84, 0.97) 0.006 44.0 61.4 < 0.001  
Geographical location
 Europe 11 0.97(0.86, 1.11) 0.723 30.2 66.9 0.001 < 0.001 12 0.88(0.80, 0.97) 0.014 25.1 56.2 0.009 < 0.001
 North America 11 1.04(0.98, 1.11) 0.194 8.73 0 0.558   11 0.91(0.82, 1.02) 0.123 29.8 66.5 0.001  
 South America 4 2.33(1.70, 3.19) < 0.001 9.74 69.2 0.021   4 0.58(0.47, 0.72) < 0.001 3.56 15.7 0.313  
 Asia 8 1.21(0.93, 1.56) 0.143 32.6 78.6 < 0.001   8 0.58(0.42, 0.80) 0.001 68.6 89.9 < 0.001  
No of adjusted covariates
 ≤ 10 16 1.27(1.01, 1.63) 0.048 173.5 91.4 < 0.001 0.226 16 0.74(0.64, 0.86) < 0.001 63.5 76.4 < 0.001 0.279
 > 10 18 1.06(0.98, 1.15) 0.127 40.6 58.1 < 0.001   19 0.87(0.78, 0.96) 0.009 83.7 78.5 < 0.001  
Study quality score
 ≤ 7 18 1.25(1.04, 1.48) 0.017 160.4 89.4 < 0.001 0.190 19 0.77(0.67, 0.89) 0.001 122.2 85.3 < 0.001 0.541
 > 7 16 1.02(0.92, 1.14) 0.644 42.9 65.1 < 0.001   16 0.85(0.78, 0.93) 0.001 32.7 54.2 0.005  
Adjustment for confounders
 Age
  Yes 24 1.07(0.98, 1.18) 0.152 84.4 72.8 < 0.001 0.233 25 0.85(0.77, 0.93) 0.001 105.9 77.3 < 0.001 0.502
  No 10 1.29(0.96, 1.74) 0.094 105.8 91.5 < 0.001   10 0.74(0.62, 0.91) 0.004 39.4 77.2 < 0.001  
 BMI
  Yes 31 1.12(1.01, 1.26) 0.043 211.6 85.8 < 0.001 0.426 32 0.81(0.75, 0.89) < 0.001 138.4 77.6 < 0.001 0.754
  No 3 1.37(0.88, 2.13) 0.158 8.66 76.9 0.013   3 0.85(0.52, 1.40) 0.526 15.2 86.9 < 0.001  
 Energy
  Yes 31 1.16(1.02, 1.31) 0.023 222.4 86.5 < 0.001 0.754 31 0.84(0.77, 0.92) < 0.001 133.7 77.6 < 0.001 0.340
  No 3 1.05(0.94, 1.16) 0.416 1.51 0.0 0.470   4 0.69(0.62, 0.77) < 0.001 2.24 0.0 0.524  
 Smoking
  Yes 22 1.12(1.01, 1.25) 0.040 70.5 70.2 < 0.001 0.844 22 0.82(0.72, 0.93) 0.003 128.4 83.7 < 0.001 0.853
  No 12 1.16(0.93, 1.48) 0.193 153.5 92.8 < 0.001   13 0.82(0.75, 0.89) < 0.001 25.5 52.9 0.013  
 Alcohol
  Yes 14 0.99(0.91, 1.08) 0.854 23.5 44.6 0.036 0.075 14 0.84(0.74, 0.95) 0.007 52.9 75.4 < 0.001 0.827
  No 20 1.271.07, 1.50) 0.005 179.4 89.4 < 0.001   21 0.80(0.72, 0.90) < 0.001 101.9 80.4 < 0.001  
 Family history of breast cancer
  Yes 28 1.06(0.98, 1.16) 0.140 88.5 69.5 < 0.001 0.069 29 0.82(0.75, 0.90) < 0.001 136.5 79.5 < 0.001 0.942
  No 6 1.44(0.94, 2.20) 0.090 68.6 92.7 < 0.001   6 0.79(0.64, 0.98) 0.032 16.5 69.7 0.006  
 Physical activity
  Yes 24 1.19(1.04, 1.36) 0.012 167.5 86.3 < 0.001 0.409 24 0.82(0.74, 0.91) < 0.001 118.4 80.6 < 0.001 0.985
  No 10 1.05(0.87, 1.26) 0.628 45.4 80.2 < 0.001   11 0.81(0.71, 0.94) 0.004 36.5 72.6 < 0.001  
 Hormone use
  Yes 13 1.04(0.94, 1.14) 0.457 27.9 57.0 0.006 0.121 14 0.85(0.75, 0.97) 0.016 67.8 80.8 < 0.001 0.649
  No 21 1.26(1.05, 1.51) 0.011 191.3 89.5 < 0.001   21 0.79(0.71, 0.89) < 0.001 83.1 75.9 < 0.001  
  1. BMI, body mass index