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Table 1 Serum biomarkers of diet-induced obesity (n = 10/arm)

From: Impact of obesity on breast cancer recurrence and minimal residual disease

  LFD p Valuea vs. HFD-Obese HFD-Lean p Valueb vs. HFD-Obese HFD-Obese p Valuec across arms
Sex hormones
 Estradiol, pg/ml 5.46 [4.97–6.49] 0.190 4.82 [4.22–7.55] 0.739 4.81 [4.4–5.83] 0.474
 Testosterone, ng/ml 0.492 [0.161–0.754] 0.463 0.466 [0.124–7.17] 0.876 0.227 [0.197–0.44] 0.769
 SHBG, μg/ml 1.3 [1.08–303] 0.631 24.7 [1.44–332] 0.529 9.65 [1.15–316] 0.416
Adipokines
 Leptin, pg/ml 5630 [3190–8070] < 0.001 6940 [4250–12,100] < 0.001 18,100 [11,800–20,900] < 0.001
 Adiponectin, ng/ml 12.6 [11.6–14.1] 0.190 14.7 [13.4–17.9] 0.002 12.2 [9.96–13] 0.006
 Resistin, pg/ml 5410 [3640–6690] 0.004 5640 [3600–7780] 0.023 9250 [6950–12,400] 0.012
Inflammatory markers
 TNF-α, pg/ml 9.86 [5.67–12.5] 0.268 11.6 [10.1–14.5] 0.918 12.5 [8.33–15.2] 0.287
 IL-6, pg/ml 4.58 [2.13–5.94] 0.536 0.548 [0.387–1.13] 0.083 1.88 [0.316–11.6] 0.035
 MCP-1, pg/ml 39.3 [36.9–41.9] 0.094 38.7 [31.1–53.2] 0.202 64.4 [40.2–93.2] 0.175
 CRP, ng/ml 18.2 [15.3–19.4] 0.286 16.9 [15.2–18.1] 0.421 15.7 [15–18] 0.334
 tPAI-1, pg/ml 12,200 [8650–16,200] 0.739 11,900 [9480–14,900] 0.481 13,900 [8580–17,500] 0.774
 Corticosterone, ng/ml 110 [72.5–164] 0.315 200 [85.2–304] 0.796 199 [75.3–223] 0.379
 HGF, pg/ml 9910 [7860–10,800] 0.280 9370 [7600–11,900] 0.247 8520 [6210–10,300] 0.384
Insulin/IGF-1 signaling
 Insulin, pg/ml 359 [216–625] 0.481 161 [117–245] 0.011 426 [228–840] 0.020
 IGF-1, ng/ml 462 [417–542] < 0.001 542 [518–609] 0.280 581 [559–617] 0.002
 IGFBP1, ng/ml 7.12 [4.35–11.5] 0.064 5.16 [4.1–9.01] 0.436 4.37 [3.32–7.02] 0.170
 IGFBP2, ng/ml 145 [107–184] 0.912 224 [155–292] 0.019 148 [105–176] 0.057
 IGFBP3, ng/ml 204 [191–213] 0.579 197 [176–223] 0.912 193 [176–228] 0.836
 IGFBP5, ng/ml 12.7 [0.811–18.8] 0.345 6.97 [0.861–18.9] 0.579 3.99 [0.818–10.4] 0.607
 IGFBP6, ng/ml 206 [180–216] 0.105 224 [196–283] 0.684 223 [200–254] 0.121
 IGFBP7, ng/ml 18.2 [16.4–21.6] 0.393 19.2 [16.3–23] 0.684 20.5 [17.7–22.5] 0.673
 IGF1/IGFBP1 69.7 [42.6–109] 0.029 111 [62.5–138] 0.393 131 [92.6–197] 0.079
 IGF1/IGFBP2 3.51 [2.52–4.7] 0.218 2.5 [1.83–4.03] 0.029 4.01 [3.2–5.64] 0.061
 IGF1/IGFBP3 2.4 [2.06–2.64] 0.005 2.81 [2.59–3.05] 0.631 3.02 [2.56–3.33] 0.005
 IGF1/IGFBP5 41.2 [22.7–574] 0.075 94.1 [39.6–673] 0.353 501 [77.8–703] 0.171
 IGF1/IGFBP6 2.39 [2.08–2.61] 0.247 2.38 [2.04–2.94] 0.436 2.84 [2.18–3.17] 0.475
 IGF1/IGFBP7 26.2 [22.7–29.4] 0.280 28 [25.1–33.7] 1.000 29.7 [22.9–35] 0.394
  1. Abbreviations: CRP C-reactive protein, HFD High-fat diet, HGF Hepatocyte growth factor, IGF Insulin-like growth factor, IGFBP Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein, IL Interleukin, LFD Low-fat diet, MCP Monocyte chemoattractant protein, SHBG Sex hormone-binding globulin, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α, tPAI1 Tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
  2. Values represent medians [95% CI]. Bold indicates statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05)
  3. aMann-Whitney U test between LFD and HFD-Obese
  4. bMann-Whitney U test between HFD-Lean and HFD-Obese
  5. cKruskal-Wallis test across three arms