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Fig. 4 | Breast Cancer Research

Fig. 4

From: Paternal malnutrition programs breast cancer risk and tumor metabolism in offspring

Fig. 4

Amino acid metabolism is altered in low-protein (LP) diet mammary tissues and tumors. a Levels of free amino acids (total, alanine (Ala), and glutamine (Gln)) in control and LP tumors assessed by LC/MS (mean ± SEM; n = 6/group). bf Levels of glutamine and glutamate in control and LP mammary glands and tumors (b-d), and in circulation (e-f) assessed by a colorimetric assay (mean ± SEM; n = 5–7/group). g, h Representative Western blots for GLS, GLS2, ASCT2, EEAT2, and xCT on PND50 control (Con) and LP mammary tissues (g) (n = 4–7/group) and tumors (h) (n = 5/group). Protein levels were normalized by β-actin. Significant differences versus the control group were determined as follows: two-way ANOVA (total amino acid levels, glutamine/glutamate in normal mammary tissue and tumors) and t test (glutamine/glutamate circulation). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001

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