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Table 2 Geometric means and percentage differences of volumetric mammographic density comparing insulin-treated T1D and T2D patients with age-matched individuals without diabetes

From: Long-term exposure to insulin and volumetric mammographic density: observational and genetic associations in the Karma study

  No. of subjects Geometric mean (95% CI)
Percent dense volume (%) Absolute dense volume (cm3) Absolute nondense volume (cm3)
Age- and BMI-adjusted Multivariable-adjusted Age- and BMI-adjusted Multivariable-adjusted Age- and BMI-adjusted Multivariable-adjusted
Insulin-treated T1D
 Nondiabetics 610 8.7 (8.5; 9.1) 8.7 (8.4; 9.0) 59.6 (57.4; 61.9) 59.7 (57.5; 62.1) 610.3 (589.5; 631.8) 615.0 (593.8; 637.0)
 T1D - insulin any 122 11.3 (10.4; 12.2) 11.4 (10.5; 12.4) 65.7 (60.4; 71.5) 64.7 (58.8; 71.1) 509.8 (471.8; 550.9) 490.5 (450.0; 534.6)
P value   < 0.001 < 0.001 0.01 0.14 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Nondiabetics 610 8.7 (8.5; 9.1) 8.7 (8.4; 9.0) 59.6 (57.4; 61.9) 59.8 (57.6; 62.2) 611.0 (590.2; 632.6) 615.7 (594.5; 637.7)
 T1D - nonglargine insulin 57 11.0 (9.8; 12.3) 11.5 (10.2; 13.0) 60.0 (52.7; 68.2) 59.1 (51.5; 67.9) 477.1 (423.9; 536.9) 447.2 (394.3; 507.2)
 T1D - glargine insulin 65 11.5(10.4; 12.8) 11.4 (10.2; 12.7) 70.9 (63.2; 79.6) 69.2 (61.3; 78.2) 534.1 (480.3; 593.9) 525.9 (470.8; 587.4)
P value   < 0.001 < 0.001 0.02 0.07 < 0.001 < 0.001
Insulin-treated T2D
 Nondiabetics 1161 6.5 (6.4; 6.7) 6.5 (6.3; 6.6) 52.7 (51.3; 54.1) 52.6 (51.2; 54.0) 746.9 (728.3; 766.0) 753.5(734.5; 773.0)
 T2D - insulin any 237 7.4 (6.9; 8.0) 7.8 (7.2; 8.4) 57.5 (53.5; 61.9) 58.0 (53.7; 62.7) 708.9 (661.3; 760.0) 679.1(630.9; 731.0)
P value   0.002 0 0.004 0.03 0.20 0.02
 Nondiabetics 1161 6.5 (6.4; 6.7) 6.5 (6.3; 6.7) 52.8 (51.4; 54.3) 52.7 (51.3; 54.2) 746.6 (727.8; 765.8) 753.0 (733.9; 772.6)
 T2D - nonglargine insulin 163 7.1 (6.5; 7.8) 7.5 (6.8; 8.2) 55.2 (50.4; 60.4) 56.0 (50.9; 61.5) 715.3 (656.1; 779.9) 687.1 (628.0; 751.7)
 T2D – glargine insulin 74 7.9 (7.1; 8.7) 8.2 (7.4; 9.1) 60.7 (54.9; 67.1) 60.7 (54.8; 67.3) 700.8 (636.7; 771.4) 669.2 (606.6; 738.3)
P value   0.002 <  0.001 0.04 0.04 0.41 0.05
   Percentage difference (95% CI)
Percent dense volume Absolute dense volume Absolute nondense volume
Age- and BMI-adjusted Multivariable-adjusted Age- and BMI-adjusted Multivariable-adjusted Age- and BMI-adjusted Multivariable-adjusted
Insulin-treated T1D
 Nondiabetics 610 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 T1D - insulin any 122 28.8 (18.3; 40.2) 31.2 (19.5; 44.0) 10.3 (0.5; 21.0) 8.2 (−2.6; 20.3) −16.5 (−23.3; −9.0) −20.2 (−27.6; −12.2)
 Nondiabetics 610 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 T1D - nonglargine insulin 57 25.6 (11.2; 41.8) 31.8(15.7; 50.2) 0.6 (− 12.1; 15.2) −1.2 (− 14.7; 14.4) −21.9 (−31.0; − 11.6) −27.4 (−36.5; − 17.0)
 T1D - glargine insulin 65 31.3 (17.7; 46.5) 30.7 (16.5; 46.6) 19.1 (5.4; 34.5) 15.7 (1.7; 31.7) −12.6 (− 21.8; − 2.3) −14.6 (− 24.1; − 3.9)
Insulin-treated T2D
 Nondiabetics 1161 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 T2D - insulin any 237 13.7 (4.7; 23.6) 20.5 (10.3; 31.6) 9.2 (0.4; 18.7) 10.3 (0.9; 20.6) −5.1 (−12.4; 2.8) −9.9 (− 17.2; − 1.9)
 Nondiabetics 1161 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 T2D - nonglargine insulin 163 8.3 (−2.1; 19.7) 15.0 (3.6; 27.7) 4.5 (− 5.5; 15.6) 6.2 (−4.5; 18.1) −4.2 (−13.0; 5.5) −8.8 (− 17.5; 1.0)
 T2D – glargine insulin 74 20.4 (8.3; 33.8) 26.9 (13.8; 41.6) 14.9 (3.3; 27.8) 15.2 (3.1; 28.6) −6.1 (−15.2; 3.9) −11.1 (−20.0; −1.3)
  1. Abbreviations: T1D Type 1 diabetes, T2D Type 2 diabetes, BMI Body mass index
  2. Multivariable-adjusted model: model adjusted for age (years), body mass index (kg/m2), education level (compulsory, gymnasium, university), age at menarche (years), parity, and age at first birth (nulliparous, parous/age at first birth < 25 years, parous/age at first birth 25–30 years, parous/age at first birth > 30 years), menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal), oral contraceptives (never, ever), hormone replacement therapy (never, former, current), alcohol intake (none, 1–25 g/wk, 25–50 g/wk, > 50 g/wk), physical activity (< 40 MET h/d, 40–45 MET h/d, 45–50 MET h/d, > 50 MET h/d), smoking status (never, former, current), statins (no, yes), low-dose aspirin (no, yes), Charlson comorbidity index (0, 1, ≥ 2), benign breast disease (no, yes), and family history of breast cancer (no, yes). All analyses were standard adjusted for metformin therapy