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Table 3 Effect of the interventions on body weight and on serum sex hormones levels

From: Effect of exercise and/or reduced calorie dietary interventions on breast cancer-related endogenous sex hormones in healthy postmenopausal women

Name, duration Baseline valuea Postinterventiona Within-group difference (%) Between-group differenceb Between-group differenceb
Weight (kg) or BMIc
 SHAPE-2 [18], 2015, 16 weeks     
  Exercise + diet (Ex+WL) 80.4 74.9 −5.5 −5.58 (−6.32 to −4.84) Ex+WL vs WL
  Reduced calorie diet (WL) 80.3 75.4 −4.9 − 4.95 (−5.69 to −4.21) −0.63 (−1.23 to −0.04)
  Control 80.4 80.4 0.1 Referent  
 NEW trial [17], 2012, 12 months     
  Exercise + diet 82.5 72.7 −9.8 P < 0.001 Ex+WL vs WL, P = 0.1
  Exercise 83.7 80.9 −2.8 P = 0.02 Ex+WL vs Ex, P < 0.001
  Reduced calorie diet 84.0 74.9 −9.1 P < 0.001 Ex vs WL, P < 0.001
  Control 84.2 83.7 −0.5 Referent  
 ALPHA trial [24], 2010, 12 months     
  Exercise    −2.3 −1.80 (−2.60 to −1.00)  
  Control    −0.5 Referent  
 SHAPE-1 [3], 2009, 12 months      
  Exercise 73.6 72.2 −1.4 N/A  
  Control 74.8 74.0 −0.8   
 Orsatti et al. [25], 2008, BMI, 16 weeks     
  Exercise 28.8c 29.6c 0.6c P = 0.57  
  Control 27.6c 27.1c −0.5c Referent  
 PATH trial [22, 23], 2004, 12 months     
  Exercise 81.6 80.3 −1.6 P = 0.1  
  Control 81.7 81.8 0.1 Referent  
Total estradiol (pg/ml)
 SHAPE-2 [18], 2015     
  Exercise + diet 3.69 3.22 −12.7 0.83 (0.73–0.95) Ex+WL vs WL
  Reduced calorie diet 4.20 3.62 −13.8 0.86 (0.75–0.98) 0.97 (0.87–1.08)
  Control 3.89 4.01 3.11 Referent  
 NEW trial [17], 2012     
  Exercise + diet 11.5 9.2 −20.3 P < 0.001 Ex+WL vs WL, P = 0.07
  Exercise 11.5 11.0 −4.9 P = 0.1 Ex+WL vs Ex, P < 0.001
  Reduced calorie diet 11.6 9.7 −16.2 P < 0.001 Ex vs WL, P = 0.002
  Control 10.9 11.4 4.9 Referent  
 ALPHA trial [24], 2010     
  Exercise 10.1 8.7   0.93 (0.88–0.98)  
  Control 10.2 9.9   Referent  
 SHAPE-1 [3], 2009     
  Exercise 8.8 8.1 −7.3 0.99 (0.95–1.02)  
  Control 9.8 8.8 −10.2 Referent  
 Orsatti et al. [25], 2008     
  Exercise 21.5 23.2   P = 0.56  
  Control 25.1 27.4   Referent  
 PATH trial [22, 23], 2004     
  Exercise 18.3 17.5 −4.4 P = 0.32  
  Control 17.9 17.8 −0.6 Referent  
Estrone (pg/ml)
 SHAPE-2 [18], 2015     
  Exercise + diet 19.9 18.5 −6.67 0.92 (0.82:1.02) Ex+WL vs WL
  Reduced calorie diet 20.4 20.1 −1.26 0.98 (0.88:1.08) 0.94 (0.86:1.02)
  Control 20.1 20.4 3.11 Referent  
 NEW trial [17], 2012     
  Exercise + diet 33.9 30.2 −11.1 P < 0.001 Ex+WL vs WL, P = 0.17
  Exercise 34.8 32.9 −5.5 P < 0.01 Ex+WL vs Ex, P = 0.1
  Reduced calorie diet 35.2 31.8 −9.6 P < 0.001 Ex vs WL, P = 0.3
  Control 32.0 34.6 8.1 Referent  
 ALPHA trial [24], 2010 31.4 29.4    
  Exercise 31.3 30.6   0.99 (0.94–1.03)  
  Control     Referent  
 SHAPE-1 [3], 2009     
  Exercise 30.6 27.6 −9.7 0.97 (0.92–1.04)  
  Control 28.0 27.3 −3.4 Referent  
 PATH trial [22, 23], 2004     
  Exercise 44.2 42.5 −1.8 P = 0.13  
  Control 43.9 45.4 3.9 Referent  
Free estradiol (pg/ml)
 SHAPE-2 [18], 2015     
  Exercise + diet 0.09 0.07 −19.1 0.77 (0.67–0.88) Ex+WL vs WL
  Reduced calorie diet 0.10 0.08 −17.7 0.80 (0.70–0.92) 0.96 (0.85–1.02)
  Control 0.09 0.10 3.23 Referent  
 NEW trial [17], 2012     
  Exercise + diet 0.32 0.23 −26 P < 0.001 Ex+WL vs WL, P = 0.06
  Exercise 0.30 0.29 −4.7 P = 0.08 Ex+WL vs Ex, P < 0.001
  Reduced calorie diet 0.31 0.24 −21.4 P < 0.001 Ex vs WL, P < 0 .001
  Control 0.30 0.33 6.3 Referent  
 ALPHA trial [24], 2010     
  Exercise 0.24 0.21   0.91 (0.87–0.96)  
  Control 0.25 0.24   Referent  
 SHAPE-1 [3], 2009     
  Exercise 0.22 0.21 −7.3 1.00 (0.96–1.04)  
  Control 0.25 0.23 −10.2 Referent  
 PATH trial [22, 23], 2004     
  Exercise 0.49 0.46 −6.2 P = 0.2  
  Control 0.47 0.47 0.0 Referent  
Testosterone (pg/ml)
 SHAPE-2 [18], 2015     
  Exercise + diet 186 172 −7.63 0.96 (0.87–1.05) Ex+WL vs WL
  Reduced calorie diet 197 189 −3.76 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 0.95 (0.88–1.02))
  Control 194 186 4.07 Referent  
 NEW trial [17], 2012     
  Exercise + diet 239 225 −5.9 P = 0.02 Ex+WL vs WL, P = 0.07
  Exercise 248 236 −4.9 P = 0.24 Ex+WL vs Ex, P = 0.24
  Reduced calorie diet 239 236 −0.9 P = 0.4 Ex vs WL, P = 0.67
  Control 228 232 1.8 Referent  
 ALPHA trial [24], 2010     
  Exercise 239 234   0.99 (0.95–1.03)  
  Control 231 237   Referent  
 SHAPE-1 [3], 2009     
  Exercise 528 507 −4.0 0.98 (0.94–1.01)  
  Control 535 526 −1.6 Referent  
 PATH trial [22, 23], 2004     
  Exercise 211 208   P = 0.94  
  Control 223 218   Referent  
Androstenedione (pg/ml)
 SHAPE-2 [18], 2015     
  Exercise + diet 573 488 −14.7 0.87 (0.76–1.00) Ex+WL vs WL
  Reduced calorie diet 562 537 −4.5 0.97 (0.85–1.12) 0.90 (0.80–1.01)
  Control 575 560 −2.6 Referent  
 NEW trial [17], 2012     
  Exercise + diet 526 508 −3.5 P = 0.22 Ex+WL vs WL, P = 0.26
  Exercise 502 496 −1.2 P = 0.75 Ex+WL vs Ex, P = 0.25
  Reduced calorie diet 511 518 1.4 P = 0.83 Ex vs WL, P = 0.93
  Control 487 494 1.5 Referent  
 ALPHA trial [24], 2010     
  Exercise 578 572   0.98 (0.93–1.03)  
  Control 553 577   Referent  
 SHAPE-1 [3], 2009     
  Exercise 1146 1115 −2.7 0.97 (0.93–1.01)  
  Control 1172 1199 2.3 Referent  
 PATH trial [22, 23], 2004     
  Exercise 533 480   P = 0.89  
  Control 585 525   Referent  
Free testosterone (pg/ml)
 SHAPE-2 [18], 2015     
  Exercise + diet 2.44 2.01 −17.7 0.84 (0.76–0.93) Ex+WL vs WL
  Reduced calorie diet 2.53 2.25 −11.2 0.91 (0.83–1.01) 0.92 (0.85–0.99)
  Control 2.71 2.61 −3.9 Referent  
 NEW trial [17], 2012     
  Exercise + diet 5.3 4.5 −15.6 P < 0.001 Ex+WL vs WL, P = 0.02
  Exercise 5.1 4.9 −4.5 P = 0.2 Ex+WL vs Ex, P < 0.001
  Reduced calorie diet 5.1 4.6 −10.0 P < 0.001 Ex vs WL, P = 0.02
  Control 4.9 5.1 2.6 Referent  
 ALPHA trial [24], 2010     
  Exercise 3.5 3.3   0.96 (0.92–1.01)  
  Control 3.5 3.5   Referent  
 SHAPE-1 [3], 2009     
  Exercise 8.7 8.5 −2.9 0.99 (0.95–1.03)  
  Control 8.7 8.5 −1.8 Referent  
 PATH trial [22, 23], 2004     
  Exercise 4.6 4.3   P = 0.42  
  Control 4.7 4.6   Referent  
SHBG (nmol/l)
 SHAPE-2 [18], 2015     
  Exercise + diet 49.3 58.6 19.0 1.21 (1.12–1.30) Ex+WL vs WL
  Reduced calorie diet 50.7 57.1 12.6 1.14 (1.07–1.23) 1.05 (1.00–1.12)
  Control 44.2 44.0 −0.30 Referent  
 NEW trial [17], 2012     
  Exercise + diet 34.1 42.9 25.8 P < 0.001 Ex+WL vs WL, P = 0.41
  Exercise 39.1 38.8 0.7 P = 0.41 Ex+WL, vs Ex P < 0.001
  Reduced calorie diet 35.8 43.8 22.4 P < 0.001 Ex vs WL, P < 0.001
  Control 34.7 33.7 −2.7 Referent  
 ALPHA trial [24], 2010     
  Exercise 40.3 41.9   1.04 (1.02–1.07)  
  Control 38.1 38.4   Referent  
 SHAPE-1 [3], 2009     
  Exercise 33.9 33.6 −0.7 0.98 (0.92–1.04)  
  Control 34.7 33.6 −3.3 Referent  
 PATH trial [22, 23], 2004     
  Exercise 35.2 38.3 8.8 P = 0.10  
  Control 35.8 36.7 2.5 Referent  
  1. ALPHA Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer, NEW Nutrition and Exercise for Woman, PATH Physical Activity for Total Health, SHAPE Sex Hormone and Physical Exercise, SHBG sex hormone binding globulin
  2. aGeometric means reported
  3. bValues are given as either treatment effect ratios (95% confidence intervals) or as P values
  4. cBody mass index (BMI) was reported when bodyweight was not available