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Table 1 Characteristics of the six included studies

From: Effect of exercise and/or reduced calorie dietary interventions on breast cancer-related endogenous sex hormones in healthy postmenopausal women

Study Study arms Mean age (SD) (years) Sample size, n; drop out, n (%) Sex hormone outcomes Methods for sex hormone evaluation Intervention period
SHAPE-2 [18], 2015, The Netherlands Ex + D 59.5 (4.9) 98; 9 (9%) Total estradiol, estrone, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, androstenedione Determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC). SHBG by double-antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) kitsb 16 weeksa
D 60.5 (4.6) 97; 6 (6%)
C 60.0 (4.9) 48; 3 (6%)
NEW trial [17], 2012, United States Ex + D 58.0 (4.4) 117; 9 (8%) Total estradiol, estrone, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, androstenedione Quantified by RIA after organic solvent extraction and Celite column partition chromatography. SHBG via chemiluminescent immunometric assay using Immulite Analyzerb 6 months, 12 months
Ex 58.1 (5.0) 117; 11 (9%)
D 58.1 (5.9) 118; 13 (11%)
C 57.4 (4.4) 87; 7 (8%)
ALPHA trial [24], 2010, Canada Ex 61.2 (5.4) 160; 6 (4%) Total estradiol, estrone, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, androstenedione Quantified by RIA after organic solvent extraction and Celite column partition chromatography. SHBG via immunometric assay using Immulite Analyzerb 6 months, 12 months
C 60.6 (5.7) 160; 6 (4%)
SHAPE-1, 2009 [3], The Netherlands Ex 58.9 (4.6) 96; 1 (1%) Total estradiol, estrone, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, androstenedione Double-antibody RIA kits were used for determining sex hormones, also for SHBGb 4 months, 12 months
C 58.4 (4.2) 93; 5 (5%)
Orsatti et al. [25], 2008, Brazil Ex 57.8 (8.0) 27; 6 (22%) Total testosterone, total estradiol Measured by the Immulite System, automated immunoassay. 16 weeks
C 59.3 (6.2) 23; 1 (4%)
PATH trial [22, 23], 2004, United States Ex 60.7 (6.7) 87; 3 (3%) Total estradiol, estrone, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, androstenedione Quantified by RIA after organic solvent extraction and Celite column partition chromatography. SHBG via immunometric assay using Immulite Analyzerb 12 months
C 60.6 (6.8) 86; 0
  1. ALPHA Alberta Physical Activity and Breast Cancer, C control, D reduced calorie diet, Ex exercise, NEW Nutrition and Exercise for Woman, PATH Physical Activity for Total Health, SHAPE Sex Hormone and Physical Exercise, SHBG sex hormone binding globulin
  2. aAlthough this study took 16 weeks, results were pooled with the other studies
  3. bFree estradiol/free testosterone were calculated using the measured values for estradiol, testosterone, and SHBG, and assumed constant for albumin