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Table 2 Estimated differencesa (95% confidence interval) in square-root-transformed percent mammographic density for a 10-μg/m3 PM increase

From: Residential particulate matter and distance to roadways in relation to mammographic density: results from the Nurses’ Health Studies

  Across the United States Northeast Midwest West South p for region interaction term
Premenopausal
 1 year prior n = 1624 n = 577 n = 554 n = 261 n = 232  
  PM2.5 0.04 (–0.17, 0.26) 0.06 (–0.40, 0.52) –0.08 (–0.58, 0.43) 0 (–0.35, 0.34) 0.21 (–0.32, 0.74) 0.59
  PM2.5–10 –0.01 (–0.16, 0.15) –0.01 (–0.57, 0.54) –0.07 (–0.42, 0.28) 0.08 (–0.19, 0.34) –0.34 (–0.95, 0.27) 0.45
  PM10 0.01 (–0.10, 0.12) 0.02 (–0.26, 0.30) –0.06 (–0.33, 0.20) 0.03 (–0.14, 0.20) –0.05 (–0.57, 0.47) 0.58
 3-year average n = 1624 n = 582 n = 554 n = 260 n = 228  
  PM2.5 0.05 (–0.16, 0.27) 0.05 (–0.40, 0.51) –0.05 (–0.55, 0.45) –0.01 (–0.36, 0.35) 0.27 (–0.27, 0.81) 0.53
  PM2.5–10 0 (–0.15, 0.16) 0.02 (–0.53, 0.57) –0.04 (–0.40, 0.33) 0.10 (–0.18, 0.38) –0.58 (–1.19, 0.03) 0.22
  PM10 0.02 (–0.10, 0.13) 0.02 (–0.25, 0.30) –0.03 (–0.30, 0.23) 0.04 (–0.13, 0.20) –0.17 (–0.70, 0.36) 0.67
Postmenopausal
 1 year prior n = 1634 n = 738 n = 360 n = 274 n = 262  
  PM2.5 –0.04 (–0.26, 0.19) 0.37 (–0.03, 0.77) –0.24 (–0.91, 0.42) –0.21 (–0.56, 0.13) –0.05 (–0.70, 0.60) 0.09
  PM2.5–10 –0.01 (–0.16, 0.14) 0.22 (–0.24, 0.69) 0.11 (–0.38, 0.60) –0.22 (–0.47, 0.03) 0.32 (–0.32, 0.96) 0.29
  PM10 –0.01 (–0.12, 0.10) 0.19 (–0.05, 0.42) –0.01 (–0.34, 0.32) –0.14 (–0.29, 0.02) 0.19 (–0.35, 0.74) 0.15
 3-year average n = 1634 n = 745 n = 364 n = 272 n = 253  
  PM2.5 –0.05 (–0.27, 0.17) 0.39 (–0.02, 0.79) –0.25 (–0.91, 0.42) –0.27 (–0.62, 0.07) 0.06 (–0.61, 0.73) 0.06
  PM2.5–10 –0.01 (–0.16, 0.14) 0.19 (–0.27, 0.65) 0.16 (–0.32, 0.64) –0.23 (–0.47, 0.02) 0.39 (–0.30, 1.07) 0.24
  PM10 –0.02 (–0.13, 0.09) 0.18 (–0.06, 0.41) 0.02 (–0.31, 0.34) –0.15 (–0.31, 0.01) 0.31 (–0.26, 0.89) 0.10
  1. PM particulate matter, PM 2.5 particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, PM 2.5–10 particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter, PM 10 particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter
  2. aAdjusted for cohort, age, body mass index, parity and age at first birth categories, hormonal therapy use, history of biopsy-confirmed benign breast disease, and date of mammogram