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Table 2 Thymidine kinase 1 activity, Ki-67 and thymidine kinase messenger RNA over time

From: Serum thymidine kinase 1 activity as a pharmacodynamic marker of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibition in patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant palbociclib

Time point Serum TK1 Tumor Ki-67 Tumor TK1 mRNA
Median (IQR) (Du/L)
(number of cases < 20 Du/L)
No. of participants Median (IQR) (%) No. of participants Median (IQR) (%) No. of participants
Baseline (C0D1) 46 (25–73)
(9 cases < 20 Du/L)
48 24.34% (12.91–34.87%) 45 0.315 (−0.178 to 1.128%) 16
Cycle 1, day 1 (C1D1) 42.55 (29–94.6)
(8 cases < 20 Du/L)
49 5.37% (2.52–13.51%)a 45 −0.42 (−1.19 to 0.47%)b 33
Cycle 1, day 15 (C1D15) <20 (<20 to < 20)a
(44 cases < 20 Du/L)
48 0.78% (0.24–1%)a 45 0.98 (−1.89 to 0%)b 29
Surgery without C5 143.96 (90.9–306.4)a
(3 cases < 20 Du/L)
31 10.63% (4.59–23.67%)a 27 0.07 (−0.81 to 0.69%) 17
Surgery with C5 <20 (<20–21.5)
(3 cases < 20 Du/L)
6 0.52% (0.16–1.66%) 7 −0.35 (−1.98 to −0.11%) 6
  1. Abbreviations: Du/L DiviTum units per liter, mRNA Messenger RNA, TK1 Thymidine kinase 1
  2. C1D1: after 28 days of anastrozole (with goserelin if premenopausal) monotherapy
  3. C1D15: 2 weeks following the addition of daily palbociclib to anastrozole on cycle 1, day 1
  4. Surgery without C5: surgery occurred after four cycles (each cycle is 28 days) of palbociclib plus anastrozole, followed by a washout of palbociclib for 3–5 weeks before surgery
  5. Surgery with C5: cycle 5 (10–12 days of palbociclib) was administered immediately prior to surgery
  6. a p < 0.001 compared with the preceding time point using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (a value of 20 Du/L was used to impute the measurements of TK1 under the detection limit of 20 Du/L)
  7. b p < 0.05 compared with the preceding time point using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (a value of 20 Du/L was used to impute the measurements of TK1 under the detection limit of 20 Du/L)