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Table 5 Difference in adult mammographic density parameters across categories of timing between pubertal stages

From: Childhood body size and pubertal timing in relation to adult mammographic density phenotype

   Mammographic density parameters
    Absolute area
   Percent density difference, Dense area Non-dense area
Interval between pubertal stages Category percentage points (95% CI)a difference, cm2 (95% CI)a difference, cm2 (95% CI)a
Thelarche to menarche, years
 A: <0 -0.4 (-4.8, 4.5) -0.3 (-5.6, 5.5) -3.9 (-17.6, 10.6)
0 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
1 2.2 (-0.7, 5.2) 4.1 (0.5, 7.8) -0.1 (-8.7, 8.8)
≥2 2.0 (-1.9, 6.2) 4.0 (-0.7, 9.1) -1.3 (-12.6, 10.8)
P trendb 0.14 0.022 0.87
 B: +BMI-adjusted <0 -0.5 (-4.5, 3.9) -0.7 (-5.8, 5.0) -4.7 (-15.3, 6.4)
0 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
1 1.7 (-0.9,4.5) 4.1 (0.6, 7.8) 1.9 (-4.8, 8.8)
≥2 2.1 (-1.5, 5.8) 3.8 (-0.8, 8.7) -1.7 (-10.5, 7.5)
P trendb 0.13 0.019 0.64
 C: +weight age 11 years <0 -1.3 (-5.3, 3.0) -1.7 (-6.8, 3.8) -3.5 (-14.2, 7.7)
0 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
1 1.7 (-1.0, 4.4) 4.0 (0.6, 7.7) 2.0 (-4.8, 8.9)
≥2 1.8 (-1.7, 5.5) 3.4 (-1.1, 8.3) -1.3 (-10.2, 7.9)
P trendb 0.10 0.013 0.69
Thelarche to regular cycles, years
 A: <0 -5.6 (-11.4, 1.1) -7.8 (-14.7, 0.3) 6.2 (-14.4, 28.9)
0 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
1 1.7 (-2.2, 5.9) 1.8 (-2.9, 6.9) -2.5 (-13.6, 9.3)
≥2 1.6 (-2.3, 5.9) 2.6 (-2.3, 7.8) 1.6 (-10.0, 13.8)
P trendb 0.083 0.039 0.97
 B: +BMI-adjusted <0 -2.9 (-8.6, 3.7) -6.2 (-13.2, 2.0) -7.3 (-23.0, 9.7)
0 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
1 1.8 (-1.8, 5.6) 1.8 (-2.9, 6.7) -3.5 (-12.3, 5.8)
≥2 2.5 (-1.2, 6.4) 3.3 (-1.5, 8.5) -1.5 (-10.6, 8.1)
P trendb 0.068 0.029 0.87
 C: +weight age 11 years <0 -3.6 (-9.2, 2.9) -7.2 (-14.1, 0.8) -6.6 (-22.5, 10.5)
0 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
1 1.8 (-1.8, 5.6) 1.8 (-2.8, 6.7) -3.4 (-12.3, 5.9)
≥2 2.3 (-1.4, 6.2) 3.0 (-1.8, 8.1) -1.4 (-10.5, 8.2)
P trendb 0.064 0.028 0.89
  1. aDifferences derived with respect to reference levels: 25% for percentage density, 30 cm2 for dense area and 110 cm2 for non-dense area. Models defined as A: analyses adjusted for age at mammogram (47–50, 50–54, 55–59 (baseline), 60–64, 65–69, 70–73 years), duration of oral contraception use (never (baseline), <5, 10–14, ≥15 years, not known), postmenopausal hormone treatment (never (baseline), former, current/<5, current/5–9, current/≥10 years duration), menopausal status and time since menopause (<5 (baseline), 10–14, 15–19, ≥20, unknown years postmenopausal, not postmenopausal), age at first birth and parity (nulliparous, 10–24 years/1–2, 10–24 years/≥3, 25–29 years/1–2 (baseline), 25–29 years/≥3, 30 years/≥1), alcohol units (none (baseline), 1–4 to ≥25, in 5-unit increments), physical activity (<31 (baseline), 32–55, 56–88, ≥88 metabolic energy equivalents/h/week); B: adjusted for covariates in model A plus body mass index (BMI) (<20.0 (baseline) to >35.0, in 2.5 kg/m2 increments); C: adjusted for covariates in model B plus weight compared with peers at age 11 years (thinner (baseline), about the same, heavier, not known). b P trend for linear regression fitted through categories of exposure
  2. The p-values in bold are those with p<0.05