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Table 3 Difference in adult mammographic density parameters across categories of height compared with peers at ages 7 and 11 years

From: Childhood body size and pubertal timing in relation to adult mammographic density phenotype

   Mammographic density parameters
    Absolute area
   Percent density difference, Dense area Non-dense area
Height and age Category percentage points (95% CI)a difference, cm2 (95% CI)a difference, cm2 (95% CI)a
Height relative to peers, age 7 years
 A: Shorter 3.7 (0.9, 6.7) 3.7 (0.4, 7.2) -10.7 (-18.5, -2.7)
About the same 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
Taller 0.0 (-2.5, 2.6) 1.2 (-1.9, 4.4) 2.5 (-5.4, 10.8)
P trendb 0.027 0.23 0.006
 B: +BMI-adjusted Shorter 2.8 (0.2, 5.5) 3.1 (-0.1, 6.5) -7.7 (-13.9, -1.3)
About the same 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
Taller -0.8 (-3.1, 1.6) 0.5 (-2.5, 3.6) 5.6 (-0.7, 12.1)
P trendb 0.016 0.19 <0.001
 C: +weight age 11 years Shorter 1.9 (-0.7, 4.6) 1.8 (-1.4, 5.2) -6.9 (-13.2, -0.3)
About the same 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
Taller -0.3 (-2.6, 2.1) 1.2 (-1.8, 4.3) 4.9 (-1.5, 11.4)
P trendb 0.16 0.79 0.002
Height relative to peers, age 11 years
 A: Shorter 3.0 (0.2, 5.9) 3.3 (0.1, 6.7) -7.8 (-15.5, 0.3)
About the same 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
Taller 0.6 (-1.9, 3.2) 1.6 (-1.4, 4.7) 1.7 (-6.0, 9.6)
P trendb 0.14 0.41 0.036
 B: +BMI-adjusted Shorter 2.3 (-0.2, 4.9) 2.9 (-0.3, 6.3) -5.0 (-11.2, 1.3)
About the same 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
Taller -0.3 (-2.5, 2.1) 1.0 (-2.0, 4.0) 5.6 (-0.5, 11.9)
P trendb 0.065 0.30 0.002
 C: +weight age 11 years Shorter 1.5 (-1.0, 4.1) 1.9 (-1.3, 5.2) -4.3 (-10.6, 2.2)
About the same 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline) 0.0 (baseline)
Taller 0.3 (-2.0, 2.7) 1.7 (-1.3, 4.8) 4.9 (-1.3, 11.2)
P trendb 0.40 0.99 0.010
  1. aDifferences derived with respect to reference levels: 25% for percentage density, 30 cm2 for dense area and 110 cm2 for non-dense area. Models defined as A: analyses adjusted for age at mammogram (47–50, 50–54, 55–59 (baseline), 60–64, 65–69, 70–73 years), duration of oral contraception use (never (baseline), <5, 10–14, ≥15 years, not known), postmenopausal hormone treatment (never (baseline), former, current/<5, current/5–9, current/≥10 years duration), menopausal status and time since menopause (<5 (baseline), 10–14, 15–19, ≥20, unknown years postmenopausal, not postmenopausal), age at first birth and parity (nulliparous, 10–24 years/1–2, 10–24 years/≥3, 25–29 years/1–2 (baseline), 25–29 years/≥3, 30 years/≥1), alcohol units (none (baseline), 1–4 to ≥25, in 5-unit increments), physical activity (<31 (baseline), 32–55, 56–88, ≥88 metabolic energy equivalents/h/week); B: adjusted for covariates in model A plus body mass index (BMI) (<20.0 (baseline) to >35.0, in 2.5 kg/m2 increments); C: adjusted for covariates in model B plus weight compared with peers at age 11 years (thinner (baseline), about the same, heavier, unknown). b P trend for linear regression fitted through categories of exposure. Increase or decrease in category of height compared with peers between ages 7 and 11 years
  2. The p-values in bold are those with p<0.05