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Table 3 Pooled analysis of the association between propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use after breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality

From: Propranolol and survival from breast cancer: a pooled analysis of European breast cancer cohorts

Medication usage Cancer-specific/all-cause mortality All patients Person-years Unadjusted Adjusted for age and year Fully adjusteda
HR (95% CI) P Hetero I 2 (P) HR (95% CI) P Hetero I 2 (P) HR (95% CI) P Hetero I 2 (P)
Breast cancer-specific mortality
 Propranolol non-user 5291 53,482 176,723 1.00 (ref. cat.)    1.00 (ref. cat.)    1.00 (ref. cat.)   
 Propranolol userb 128 1770 4989 0.92 (0.77, 1.10) 0.36 0% (0.75) 0.97 (0.82, 1.16) 0.77 0% (0.84) 0.94 (0.77, 1.16) 0.56 0% (0.56)
Propranolol prescriptions
 <1 year of prescriptionsc 88 1217 3703 1.00 (0.79, 1.26) 0.98 22% (0.27) 1.09 (0.88, 1.35) 0.42 9% (0.35) 1.01 (0.80, 1.27) 0.96 0% (0.62)
 ≥1 year of prescriptionsc 40 553 1286 0.82 (0.56, 1.21) 0.32 3% (0.38) 0.80 (0.54, 1.17) 0.25 2% (0.38) 0.93 (0.46, 1.90) 0.84 63% (0.04)
 Non-selective bb non-user 5215 52,903 175,007 1.00 (ref. cat.)    1.00 (ref. cat.)    1.00 (ref. cat.)   
 Non-selective bb userb 204 2349 6706 1.08 (0.94, 1.24) 0.31 0% (0.51) 1.07 (0.93, 1.23) 0.37 0% (0.92) 1.01 (0.85, 1.20) 0.90 0% (0.47)
Non-selective bb prescriptions
 <1 year of prescriptionsc 145 1466 4555 1.13 (0.93, 1.37) 0.22 22% (0.27) 1.16 (0.99, 1.37) 0.07 0% (0.55) 1.10 (0.90, 1.34) 0.36 0% (0.70)
 ≥1 year of prescriptionsc 59 883 2149 1.02 (0.78, 1.31) 0.91 0% (0.72) 0.92 (0.71, 1.19) 0.53 0% (0.83) 0.97 (0.63, 1.48) 0.88 46% (0.14)
All-cause mortality
 Propranolol non-user 24,654 128,505 554,765 1.00 (ref. cat.)    1.00 (ref. cat.)    1.00 (ref. cat.)   
 Propranolol userb 818 4746 16,202 1.04 (0.86, 1.27) 0.68 82% (<0.01) 1.13 (0.93, 1.37) 0.21 81% (<0.01) 1.09 (0.93, 1.28) 0.27 65% (0.006)
Propranolol prescriptions
 <1 year of prescriptionsc 548 3099 10,977 1.01 (0.78, 1.32) 0.92 85% (<0.01) 1.20 (0.93, 1.53) 0.16 83% (<0.01) 1.15 (0.95, 1.39) 0.16 62% (0.01)
 ≥1 year of prescriptionsc 270 1647 5225 1.18 (0.97, 1.44) 0.10 45% (0.09) 1.10 (0.96, 1.26) 0.17 10% (0.35) 1.09 (0.85, 1.40) 0.48 55% (0.04)
 Non-selective bb non-user 23,740 125,320 543,344 1.00 (ref. cat.)    1.00 (ref. cat.)    1.00 (ref. cat.)   
 Non-selective bb userb 1732 7931 27,624 1.34 (1.14, 1.58) 0.001 87% (<0.01) 1.22 (1.09, 1.36) 0.001 70% (<0.01) 1.16 (1.02, 1.32) 0.02 71% (<0.01)
Non-selective bb prescriptions
 <1 year of prescriptionsc 1012 4512 17,074 1.23 (0.98, 1.55) 0.08 89% (<0.01) 1.22 (1.04, 1.43) 0.02 75% (<0.01) 1.19 (1.04, 1.36) 0.01 54% (0.03)
 ≥1 year of prescriptionsc 720 3419 10,549 1.67 (1.49, 1.87) <0.001 39% (0.13) 1.30 (1.21, 1.40) <0.001 0% (0.61) 1.23 (1.04, 1.45) 0.02 62% (0.02)
  1. aModel contains age, year, stage and confounders presented in Table 1
  2. bMedication use modelled as a time-varying covariate with an individual considered a non-user prior to 1 year after first medication usage and a user after this time, excludes deaths in the year after cancer diagnosis
  3. cMedication use modelled as a time-varying covariate with an individual considered a non-user prior to 1 year after first medication usage, a user of 0–1 year of prescriptions from 1 year after first prescription to 1 year of prescriptions (considered four prescriptions in Denmark and 12 prescriptions in all other countries) and a greater user after this time, excludes deaths in the year after cancer diagnosis
  4. bb beta-blocker, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, ref. cat. reference category