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Table 2 Association of adolescent fiber intake with premenopausal breast density (coefficient and 95 % confidence interval) (n = 743)

From: Adolescent fiber intake and mammographic breast density in premenopausal women

Type of fiber/food group Percent density (untransformed) Absolute dense area (square root- transformed) Non-dense area (square root-transformed)
N Age/BMI adjusted Fully adjusteda Age/BMI adjusted Fully adjusteda Age/BMI adjusted Fully adjusteda
Total fiber, quartile (quartile median)
 1st (15.7) 183 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 2nd (18.9) 184 -0.51 (-3.62, 2.60) -0.66 (-3.62, 2.31) 0.13 (-0.38, 0.63) 0.00 (-0.50, 0.49) 0.16 (-0.34, 0.65) 0.09 (-0.40, 0.57)
 3rd (21.6) 190 -0.74 (-3.83, 2.35) -1.04 (-4.30, 2.22) 0.22 (-0.28, 0.72) 0.10 (-0.42, 0.61) 0.36 (-0.13, 0.85) 0.34 (-0.17, 0.85)
 4th (26.5) 186 -0.19 (-3.29, 2.92) -0.82 (-4.16, 2.53) 0.14 (-0.37, 0.64) -0.09 (-0.61, 0.44) 0.16 (-0.33, 0.66) 0.06 (-0.49, 0.61)
p trend   0.92 0.64 0.59 0.80 0.48 0.75
Fiber from fruits, quartile (quartile median)
 1st (1.9) 193 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 2nd (3.5) 184 -0.10 (-3.18, 2.97) -0.71 (-3.73, 2.31) 0.00 (-0.49, 0.50) -0.01 (-0.54, 0.53) 0.07 (-0.42, 0.56) 0.23 (-0.27, 0.73)
 3rd (5.0) 184 -0.65 (-3.72, 2.42) -2.11 (-5.28, 1.05) -0.18 (-0.68, 0.31) -0.30 (-0.80, 0.20) 0.01 (-0.48, 0.50) 0.21 (-0.30, 0.73)
 4th (7.2) 182 -0.01 (-3.09, 3.07) -1.96 (-5.29, 1.38) 0.03 (-0.47, 0.53) -0.26 (-0.80, 0.29) 0.11 (-0.38, 0.60) 0.29 (-0.28, 0.86)
p trend   0.94 0.21 0.95 0.24 0.72 0.36
Fiber from vegetables, quartile (quartile median)
 1st (3.4) 187 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 2nd (5.2) 190 -0.33 (-3.40, 2.74) -0.15 (-3.17, 2.86) 0.20 (-0.29, 0.70) 0.22 (-0.27, 0.70) 0.18 (-0.31, 0.67) 0.11 (-0.37, 0.58)
 3rd (6.8) 180 -0.59 (-3.70, 2.52) 0.64 (-2.40, 3.69) 0.23 (-0.28, 0.73) 0.36 (-0.16, 0.87) 0.36 (-0.14, 0.85) 0.19 (-0.30, 0.68)
 4th (9.8) 186 0.36 (-2.72, 3.44) 1.05 (-2.21, 4.32) 0.25 (-0.25, 0.75) 0.29 (-0.24, 0.82) 0.15 (-0.34, 0.64) -0.02 (-0.56, 0.53)
p trend   0.80 0.46 0.37 0.31 0.54 0.91
Fiber from legumes, quartile (quartile median)
 1st (1.2) 201 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 2nd (2.0) 186 -2.75 (-5.58, 0.09) -2.92 (-5.72, -0.12) -0.13 (-0.61, 0.36) -0.14 (-0.61, 0.34) 0.29 (-0.18, 0.77) 0.34 (-0.13, 0.81)
 3rd (2.7) 177 0.40 (-2.73, 3.53) -0.31 (-3.55, 2.93) 0.15 (-0.34, 0.65) 0.10 (-0.41, 0.60) 0.01 (-0.50, 0.53) 0.14 (-0.40, 0.68)
 4th (4.5) 179 -0.02 (-3.02, 2.97) 0.20 (-2.94, 3.34) 0.16 (-0.33, 0.65) 0.17 (-0.34, 0.68) 0.09 (-0.39, 0.57) 0.04 (-0.46, 0.54)
p trend   0.56 0.49 0.37 0.38 0.97 0.83
Fiber from cereal quartile (quartile median)
 1st (3.8) 194 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 2nd (5.0) 173 -0.14 (-3.18, 2.90) -0.90 (-3.92, 2.12) -0.10 (-0.60, 0.40) -0.23 (-0.74, 0.27) -0.11 (-0.59, 0.37) -0.04 (-0.52, 0.44)
 3rd (6.1) 203 0.67 (-2.31, 3.65) 0.48 (-2.51, 3.47) 0.10 (-0.38, 0.59) 0.08 (-0.41, 0.57) -0.12 (-0.61, 0.37) -0.08 (-0.58, 0.42)
 4th (7.9) 173 -1.02 (-4.00, 1.97) -1.84 (-4.86, 1.18) -0.20 (-0.71, 0.30) -0.29 (-0.80, 0.23) -0.04 (-0.53, 0.45) 0.06 (-0.45, 0.57)
p trend   0.61 0.36 0.57 0.47 0.89 0.83
Total nuts, servings
  < 1/month (0 serv/day) 307 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 1–3/month (0.07 serv/day) 177 -1.00 (-3.81, 1.81) -1.11 (-4.00, 1.77) -0.18 (-0.64, 0.27) -0.17 (-0.62, 0.29) 0.05 (-0.40, 0.50) 0.06 (-0.38, 0.50)
 1/week (0.14 serv/day) 233 -1.07 (-3.66, 1.52) -1.79 (-4.52, 0.94) 0.14 (-0.28, 0.56) 0.11 (-0.34, 0.57) 0.49 (0.08, 0.90) 0.62 (0.17, 1.07)
  ≥ 2/week (0.57 serv/day) 24 -1.54 (-7.89, 4.81) -2.49 (-8.70, 3.71) 0.03 (-1.00, 1.06) -0.06 (-1.20, 1.08) 0.23 (-0.78, 1.23) 0.35 (-0.37, 1.07)
p trend   0.48 0.27 0.72 0.90 0.18 0.05
Fruit intake, quartile (quartile median)
 1st (0.6) 188 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 2nd (1.2) 183 -0.39 (-3.29, 2.51) -0.43 (-3.47, 2.61) 0.08 (-0.40, 0.56) 0.17 (-0.34, 0.68) 0.25 (-0.21, 0.71) 0.36 (-0.13, 0.84)
 3rd (1.8) 181 0.34 (-2.70, 3.38) -0.30 (-3.66, 3.06) 0.13 (-0.34, 0.61) 0.19 (-0.35, 0.73) 0.15 (-0.34, 0.64) 0.38 (-0.15, 0.91)
 4th (2.7) 191 -0.18 (-3.18, 2.82) -1.32 (-4.89, 2.26) 0.15 (-0.36, 0.66) 0.07 (-0.55, 0.68) 0.27 (-0.21, 0.75) 0.48 (-0.09, 1.06)
p trend   >0.99 0.75 0.55 0.88 0.36 0.14
Vegetable intake, quartile (quartile median)
 1st (1.2) 186 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
 2nd (2.0) 185 -0.91 (-3.92, 2.10) -0.16 (-3.31, 2.98) -0.20 (-0.67, 0.27) -0.12 (-0.62, 0.37) 0.14 (-0.33, 0.62) 0.05 (-0.46, 0.55)
 3rd (2.9) 185 -0.16 (-3.00, 2.67) 0.04 (-3.22, 3.31) 0.34 (-0.15, 0.84) 0.45 (-0.11, 1.01) 0.38 (-0.10, 0.86) 0.43 (-0.11, 0.97)
 4th (4.4) 187 -0.59 (-3.68, 2.49) 0.08 (-3.70, 3.86) 0.08 (-0.41, 0.57) 0.27 (-0.33, 0.87) 0.25 (-0.24, 0.75) 0.28 (-0.31, 0.86)
p trend   0.85 0.93 0.40 0.20 0.27 0.29
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index
  2. aAdjusted for age (continuous), body mass index (continuous), body mass index at age 18 (continuous), age at menarche (<12, 12–13, >13 years), parity and age at first child’s birth (nulliparous, 1–4 children with age at first birth <25 years, 1–4 children with age at first birth of 25–29 years, 1–4 children with age at first birth of ≥30 years, ≥5 children with age at first birth of <25 years, or ≥5 children with age at first birth of ≥25 years), a confirmed history of benign breast disease (yes, no), a family history of breast cancer (yes, no), alcohol consumption (0, 0– < 5, ≥5 g/day, unknown), average consumption of the same nutrient in adulthood (quartiles), caloric intake in adolescence (continuous), average caloric intake in adulthood (continuous)