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Table 1 Sources of stromal cell regulation in the tumor microenvironment

From: Tumor-associated stromal cells as key contributors to the tumor microenvironment

  Dysregulation in TASCs Regulator of TAF transition Regulator of stromal cell recruitment Mediates TASC-induced therapeutic resistance
IGFBP-2 [21] - - -
MMP-11 [22] - - -
IL-6 [34, 35] [3437] [35] [34, 38]
IL-8 [40] - - -
IL-1beta [40] [22, 31] - -
TNF-alpha [40, 41] [31] - -
NF-kappaB [24] - - -
TGF-beta [39] - - -
CXCL1/2 [24, 39] - - [24, 39]
FAP [35] - - -
MCP-1 [40] - - -
Twist1 - [13, 35] - -
miR-21 [43] [44] - -
miR-221/222 [44] [44] - [46]
MAPK/ERK [45] - - -
miR-15a/16 [47] - - -
miR-210 [51] [51] - -
Exosomes [5356] - - [58]
mTOR-4E-BP-1 - - - [38]
miR-126/126* - - [52] -
miR-149 - - [33] -
miR-155 - [49, 50] - -
miR-31 - [50] - -
miR-214 - [50] - -
  1. Soluble factors produced by both the cancer cells and TAFs promote homing, migration, and invasion of tumor cells; regulate stromal cell recruitment and TAF transition; and mediate therapeutic resistance. MicroRNAs (miRs) facilitate stromal cell recruitment by cancer cells, formation of TAFs, as well as tumor growth and development. Exosomes orchestrate TAF-mediated chemotherapeutic resistance within the tumor, TAF formation, and TAF-induced cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The sources of these factors are listed. The dash indicates that we were unable to find evidence from the literature, within page constraints, of factor involvement in the indicated type of stromal cell regulation
  2. miR-126* is the complement of miR-126. By all accounts in the literature, miR-126* is the standard nomenclature of the microRNA.