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Table 1 Clinicopathological factors according to time of recurrence

From: Differences in expression of the cancer stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 among estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative breast cancer cases with early, late, and no recurrence

     p Values
  Early recurrence (n = 184) Late recurrence (n = 134) No recurrence (n = 321) Early vs no recurrence Late vs no recurrence Early vs late recurrence
Age, years       
  ≤ 50 82 (44.57) 49 (36.57) 120 (37.38) 0.113 0.869 0.151
  > 50 102 (55.43) 85 (63.43) 201 (62.62)    
Menopausal status       
 Postmenopausal 90 (48.91) 81 (60.45) 171 (53.27) 0.345 0.159 0.041
 Premenopausal 94 (51.09) 53 (39.55) 150 (46.73)    
Bilateral breast cancer       
 Absent 169 (91.85) 121 (90.30) 319 (99.38) <0.001 <0.001 0.631
 Present 15 (8.15) 13 (9.70) 2 (0.62)    
Tumor size, mm       
  ≤ 20 49 (26.63) 44 (32.84) 187 (58.26) <0.001 <0.001 0.23
  > 20 135 (73.37) 90 (67.16) 134 (41.74)    
Nodal metastasis       
 Negative 93 (50.54) 79 (58.96) 267 (83.18) <0.001 <0.001 0.136
 Positive 91 (49.46) 55 (41.04) 54 (16.82)    
Histological type       
 IDC-NST 171 (92.93) 124 (92.54) 297 (92.52) 0.864 0.995 0.892
 Others 13 (7.07) 10 (7.46) 24 (7.48)    
Estrogen receptor staining       
  < 10 % 16 (8.70) 10 (7.46) 27 (8.41) 0.396 0.367 0.915
 10–50 % 57 (30.98) 43 (32.09) 82 (25.55)    
  ≥ 50 % 111 (60.33) 81 (60.45) 212 (66.04)    
Progesterone receptor staining       
  ≤ 20 % 85 (46.20) 59 (44.03) 133 (41.43) 0.298 0.609 0.701
  > 20 % 99 (53.80) 75 (55.97) 188 (58.57)    
Tumor grade       
 1 or 2 131 (71.20) 106 (79.10) 278 (86.60) <0.001 0.049 0.107
 3 53 (28.80) 28 (20.90) 43 (13.40)    
Ki-67 staining       
  ≤ 20 % 136 (73.91) 114 (85.07) 265 82.55) 0.022 0.507 0.014
  > 20 % 48 (26.09) 20 (14.93) 56 (17.45)    
Local recurrence       
 Absent 136 (78.61) 96 (71.64) 0    
 Present 37 (21.39) 38 (28.36) 0    
Surgical treatment       
 Total mastectomy 117 (63.59) 78 (58.21) 106 (33.02) 0.076 <0.001 0.331
 Partial mastectomy 67 (36.41) 56 (41.79) 215 (66.98)    
Radiation therapy       
 Absent 100 (54.35) 92 (68.66) 149 (46.42) <0.001 <0.001 0.009
 Present 84 (45.65) 42 (31.34) 172 (53.58)    
Adjuvant treatment       
 None 13 (7.07) 4 (2.99) 30 (9.35) <0.001 <0.001 0.021
 Chemotherapy only 19 (10.33) 6 (4.48) 7 (2.18)    
 Endocrine therapy only 53 (28.80) 55 (41.04) 180 (56.07)    
 Combined therapy 99 (53.80) 69 (51.49) 104 (32.40)    
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy       
 Absent 168 (91.30) 131 (97.76) 305 (95.31) 0.076 0.198 0.011
 Present 16 (8.70) 3 (2.24) 15 (4.69)    
Chemotherapy       
 A + T 54 (29.35) 22 (16.42) 42 (13.08)    
 A 39 (21.20) 31 (23.13) 40 (12.46)    
 T 6 (3.26) 7 (5.22) 13 (4.05)    
 CMF 17 (9.24) 12 (8.96) 13 (4.05)    
 Other 2 (1.09) 3 (2.24) 3 (0.93)    
 None 66 (35.87) 59 (44.03) 210 (65.42)    
Endocrine therapy       
 TAM 61 (33.15) 34 (25.37) 68 (21.18)    
 TAM + LHRH 30 (16.30) 18 (13.43) 35 (10.90)    
 TAM → AI 16 (8.70) 36 (26.87) 72 (22.43)    
 TAM + LHRH → AI 1 (0.54) 3 (2.24) 15 (4.67)    
 AI 39 (21.20) 27 (20.15) 87 (27.10)    
 LHRH 5 (2.72) 6 (4.48) 7 (2.18)    
 None 32 (17.39) 10 (7.46) 37 (11.53)   
  1. Abbreviations: IDC-NST invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type, A + T anthracycline and taxane, A anthracycline, T taxane, CMF cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil, TAM tamoxifen, TAM + LHRH tamoxifen and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, TAM → AI tamoxifen followed by aromatase inhibitor, TAM + LHRH → AI tamoxifen and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone followed by aromatase inhibitor, AI aromatase inhibitor, LHRH luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone