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Table 3 Main metabolite changes with intermittent energy restriction (IER), on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) in serum and GCMS in urine with IER (n = 23)

From: Intermittent energy restriction induces changes in breast gene expression and systemic metabolism

Metabolite Global change TP1 ➔ TP2 Global change TP1 ➔ TP3 Global change TP2 ➔ TP3
GCMS serum    
Fat oxidation and ketogenesis    
Butanoic acid/butyric acid Up NS Down
3-Hydroxybutyric acid Up NS Down
Glycerol Up NS Down
Hexadecanoic acid Up NS Down
Linoleic acid Up   Down
Amino acids    
Tyramine (tyrosine metabolite) Down Down NS
Glutamic acid Down Down NS
p-Hydroxyphenyllactic acid NS Down NS
GCMS urine    
Amino acids    
Tyrosine Down Down NS
Alanine Down NS NS
TCA metabolites    
Succinic acid Up NS NS
Aconitic acid Up NS NS
Myokine or muscle breakdown product    
Beta-aminoisobutyric acid Up NS NS
  1. TP1 time point 1 (baseline), TP2 after four to five weeks of the diet immediately after the two restricted days, TP3 after four to five weeks of the diet after five days of normal eating, NS no significant change