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Table 2 Changes in lipids and small molecule metabolites from serum liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-positive (LCMS+) mode with intermittent energy restriction (n = 23 women)

From: Intermittent energy restriction induces changes in breast gene expression and systemic metabolism

Lipid class Biological role Metabolites, n Global change T1 ➔ T2 Global change T1 ➔ T3 Global change T2 ➔ T3
Glycerolipid (DG) Major constituent of adipose tissue 12 4 Down 0 Down 0 Down
1 Up 7 Up 8 Up
7 NS 5 NS 4 NS
Fatty acid lipid (FA) Complex lipid building block 30 23 Down 0 Down 0 Down
2 Up 2 Up 25 Up
5 NS 28 NS 5 NS
Cholesterol-based Steroid precursor/cell membrane integrity 7 6 Down 0 Down 0 Down
0 Up 0 Up 7 Up
1 NS 7 NS 0 NS
Phosphatylcholine lipid (PC) Major structure lipid in cell membranes 52 37 Down 1 Down 6 Down
10 Up 2 Up 36 Up
5 NS 49 NS 10 NS
Phosphatidylethanolamine lipid (PE) Role in the release of lipoproteins in the liver 6 1 Down 0 Down 3 Down
5 Up 0 Up 1 Up
0 NS 6 NS 2 NS
Phosphatidylserine lipid (PS) Role in cell signalling and apoptosis 1 1 Down 0 Down 0 Down
0 Up 0 Up 0 Up
0 NS 1 NS 1 NS
Sphingolipid (sm) Cell surface protectant, cell signalling and recognition 15 8 Down 0 Down 0 Down
1 Up 3 Up 11 Up
6 NS 12 NS 4 NS
Phosphatidic lipid (PA) Complex lipid building block and signalling 1 1 Down 0 Down 0 Down
0 Up 0 Up 1 Up
0 NS 1 NS 0 NS
Unclassified lipid (ul) Various 76 31 Down 3 Down 24 Down
39 Up 11 Up 27 Up
6 NS 62 NS 25 NS
Small molecules Various 57 26 Down 5 Down 17 Down
15 Up 6 Up 31 Up
16 NS 46 NS 9 NS
  1. TP1 time point 1 (baseline), TP2 after four to five weeks of the diet immediately after the two restricted days, TP3 after four to five weeks of the diet after five days of normal eating, NS no significant change