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Table 1 Pairwise changes in body composition, hormones and lipids with intermittent energy restriction (IER) (n = 23 women)

From: Intermittent energy restriction induces changes in breast gene expression and systemic metabolism

  TP1a TP2a P 1 TP3a P 2 P 3
Weight, kg 76.3 (9.1) 73.0 (9.1) <0.001 73.1 (9.4) <0.001 0.019
Body fat, kg 27.9 (5.5) 25.8 (5.7) <0.001 25.4 (5.4) <0.001 0.080
Body fat, % 36.7 (3.9) 35.5 (4.4) <0.001 34.8 (4.4) <0.001 0.007
Fat-free mass, kg 47.8 (4.8) 46.3 (4.7) <0.001 47.1 (4.9) 0.002 0.001
Waist, cm 95.6 (6.5) 92.0 (7.5) <0.001 - - -
Hips, cm 108.1 (5.9) 105.3 (6.1) <0.001 - - -
Bust, cm 100.6 (7.5) 97.7 (7.5) <0.001 - - -
Glucose, mmol/L 4.9 (0.4) 4.7 (0.3) 0.022 4.8 (0.5) 0.2 0.654
Insulin, mU/ml 8.2 (3.3–24.1)b 5.5 (2.2–17.1)b <0.001 7.2 (2.7–16.4)b   0.030
HOMA, mU/mmol/l 1.8 (0.7–5.2)b 1.2 (0.5–3.9)b <0.001 1.5 (0.6–3.4)b 0.04 0.036
Cholesterol, mmol/L 5.2 (0.7) 4.6 (0.7) <0.001 4.5 (0.8) <0.001 0.096
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.0 (0.5–2.7)b 0.8 (0.5–1.8)b 0.007 0.9 (0.5–1.9)b 0.061 0.150
HDL, cholesterol mmol/L 1.4 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) <0.001 1.3 (0.2) 0.001 0.623
LDL, cholesterol mmol/L 3.3 (0.6) 3.0 (0.7) 0.001 2.8 (0.7) <0.001 0.020
  1. a Mean (+SD) or b geometric mean (range) for values. Mean (SD) TP1 time point 1 at baseline, TP2 time point 2 after four to five weeks of the diet immediately after the two restricted days, TP3 time point 3 after four to five weeks of the diet after five days of ‘normal’ diet. P 1 paired t test comparing TP1 to TP2. P 2 paired t test comparing TP1 to TP3. P 3 paired t test comparing TP2 to TP3, HOMA homeostatic model assessment, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein.