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Table 3 Effect modification by age on the association between infertility, fertility treatment and mammographic density

From: Association of infertility and fertility treatment with mammographic density in a large screening-based cohort of women: a cross-sectional study

  Ages 40–49 Ages 50–69
  N MD (95 % CI) N MD (95 % CI)
Absolute dense volume, cm3     
 No infertility 13,720 −1.08 (−2.74 to 0.59) 20,640 −1.05 (−2.15 to 0.04)
 No hormone treatment 2000 0.00 (Reference) 5948 0.00 (Reference)
 Hormonal treatmenta 618 −2.81 (−5.63 to 0.01) 1429 0.93 (−1.47 to 3.34)
 COS for IVF/ICSIb 1122 2.57 (−0.12 to 5.25) 1576 4.96 (0.96 to 8.96)
Absolute non-dense volume, cm3     
 No infertility 13,720 −11.9 (−24.6 to 0.7) 20,640 −1.8 (−9.6 to 6.0)
 No hormone treatment 2000 0.0 (Reference) 5948 0.0 (Reference)
 Hormonal treatmenta 618 6.9 (−17.6 to 31.4) 1429 17.2 (−0.9 to 35.2)
 COS for IVF/ICSIb 1122 −3.5 (−23.9 to 16.8) 1576 11.7 (−13.7 to 37.1)
Percent dense volume, pp     
 No infertility 13,720 0.10 (−0.16 to 0.36) 20,640 −0.26 (−0.48 to −0.04)
 No hormone treatment 2000 0.00 (Reference) 5948 0.00 (Reference)
 Hormonal treatmenta 618 −0.12 (−0.60 to 0.35) 1429 −0.24 (−0.73 to 0.24)
 COS for IVF/ICSIb 1122 0.23 (−0.17 to 0.64) 1576 0.48 (−0.16 to 1.11)
  1. Models adjusted for age at mammography, BMI, age at menarche, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, education level, family history of breast cancer, parity and menopausal status. Each exposure category divided by age
  2. p values for effect modification by age, using the likelihood ratio test; absolute dense volume: 0.107, absolute non-dense volume: 0.393, percent dense volume: 0.021
  3. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, COS controlled ovarian stimulation, ICSI intracytoplasmic sperm injection, IVF in vitro fertilization, MD mean difference (difference in mean density between exposed group and reference group), pp percentage points
  4. aHormonal treatment includes ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate or low-dose gonadotropins
  5. bCOS for IVF/ICSI includes high-dose gonadotropin stimulation for multiple follicle recruitment and superovulation