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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population by history of infertility and fertility treatment

From: Association of infertility and fertility treatment with mammographic density in a large screening-based cohort of women: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic No infertility History of infertility
No hormone treatment Hormonal treatment onlya COS for IVF/ICSIb
(n = 34,360) (n = 5948) (n = 1429) (n = 1576)
Absolute dense volume, cm3 62.8 ± 33.2 64.0 ± 33.7 64.8 ± 31.4 73.8 ± 41.5
Absolute non-dense volume, cm3 773 ± 466 805 ± 470 804 ± 499 706 ± 465
Percent dense volume, pp 9.2 ± 5.2 9.0 ± 5.2 9.3 ± 5.2 11.4 ± 5.8
Age at mammography, years, %     
 40–44 20.9 16.4 22.9 42.5
 45–49 19.1 17.2 20.4 28.7
 50–54 18.3 17.2 19.9 18.3
 55–59 13.4 15.1 15.3 8.3
 60–64 14.0 16.6 12.5 1.8
 65–69 14.4 17.5 9.0 0.3
BMI, kg/m2, %     
 <18.5 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.4
 18.5–24.9 55.7 53.6 54.9 61.7
 25–29.9 30.9 32.6 29.5 27.0
 ≥30 12.6 12.8 14.6 9.8
Age at menarche, years, %     
 <12 12.6 14.2 14.1 16.1
 12–14 72.0 70.5 69.7 70.7
 ≥15–25 15.3 15.3 16.2 13.2
Cigarette smoking, %     
 Never 48.7 46.0 50.7 57.4
 Current 11.3 10.8 9.2 7.2
 Former 40.0 43.2 40.2 35.3
Alcohol consumption, g/d, %     
 Non-drinker 18.3 17.3 17.4 15.5
 0.1–9.9 62.1 61.2 62.8 67.8
 ≥10 19.5 21.5 19.9 16.7
Education level, %     
 Compulsory school 10.9 12.0 6.9 2.5
 Upper secondary school 31.6 31.1 32.4 25.5
 University 54.3 53.1 56.8 69.2
 Other 3.2 3.9 3.9 2.8
Family history of breast cancer, % 12.5 12.7 13.6 12.1
Parity, %     
 Nulliparous 10.8 17.3 14.4 31.3
 One birth 12.3 19.3 21.6 27.5
 Two births 50.4 44.2 43.5 31.5
 Three or more births 26.6 19.2 20.4 9.7
Premenopausal, % 46.1 39.3 50.2 73.9
  1. Plus-minus values are means ± standard deviation
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, COS controlled ovarian stimulation, HRT hormone replacement therapy, ICSI intracytoplasmic sperm injection, IVF in vitro fertilization, pp percentage points
  3. aHormonal treatment includes ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate or low-dose gonadotropins
  4. bCOS for IVF/ICSI treatment includes high-dose gonadotropin stimulation for multiple follicle recruitment and superovulation