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Table 2 Meta-analysis of secondary outcomes

From: Effect of physical activity on sex hormones in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Outcome or subgroup Studies (n) Participants (n) Effect estimate 95 % CI I 2 (%)
Other estrogens (mean difference)
Estrone (pg/ml) 4 973 −1.67 −3.62, 0.28 0
Estrone sulfate (ng/ml) 2 393 −0.02 −0.19, 0.14 0
Estriol (NR) 1 79 123.90 −249.69, 497.49 NA
Estrogens – not otherwise specified (pg/ml) 2 89 27.80 −9.76, 65.36 94
Estrogen metabolites (standardized mean difference)
2-OHE1 3 512 −0.03 −0.20, 0.15 0
16α-OHE1 3 512 0.03 −0.15, 0.20 1
Total estrogen metabolites concentration (2-OHE1 + 16α-OHE1) 1 32 0.37 −0.33, 1.07 NA
2-OHE1:16α-OHE1 ratio 2 195 −0.08 −0.36, 0.21 0
Androgens (mean difference)
Total testosterone (ng/dl) 21 1939 −1.36 −3.83, 1.11 61
Free testosterone (pg/ml) 9 1369 −0.18 −0.29, −0.07 0
Androstenedione (pg/ml) 7 1187 –33.87 −64.44, −3.29 9
DHEA (ng/ml) 4 304 −0.08 −0.50, 0.35 0
DHEA sulfate (μmol/l) 8 697 −0.31 −0.57, −0.06 0
Sex hormone binding protein (mean difference) (nmol/l)
  14 1634 3.93 0.98, 6.87 75
Anthropometric factors (mean difference)
Body weight (kg) 16 1737 −1.83 −2.86, −0.81 45
Body mass index (kg/m2) 20 1976 −0.45 −0.87, −0.03 65
Total body fat (kg) 10 1552 −2.11 −3.71, −0.52 92
Percent fat mass (%) 13 1563 −1.28 −1.95, −0.61 54
Waist circumference (cm) 11 1274 −2.23 −2.97, −1.49 34
  1. CI confidence interval, DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone, NA not applicable, NR not reported, OHE1 hydroxyestrone