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Table 3 Baseline and 16-week differences in body composition and fitness between study groups

From: Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: the SHAPE-2 trial

  Baseline mean 16-wk mean Change at 16 wk Percent change at 16 wk Treatment effecta (95 % CI), intervention vs control P value* Treatment effecta (95 % CI), mainly exercise vs diet P value**
Body weight (kg)         
  Control 80.4 80.4 0.06 0.07     
  Diet 80.3 75.4 −4.89 −6.09 −4.95 (−5.69 to −4.21) <0.001   
  Mainly exercise 80.4 74.9 −5.52 −6.87 −5.58 (−6.32 to −4.84) <0.001 −0.63 (−1.23 to −0.04) 0.037
BMI (kg/m2)         
  Control 29.3 29.4 0.02 0.08     
  Diet 29.2 27.5 −1.78 −6.07 −1.80 (−2.06 to −1.53) <0.001   
  Mainly exercise 29.0 27.0 −2.00 −6.88 −2.02 (−2.29 to −1.75) <0.001 −0.22 (−0.44 to −0.01) 0.044
Waist circumference (cm)         
  Control 98.6 97.9 −0.66 −0.67     
  Diet 97.9 92.7 −5.14 −5.25 −4.54 (−5.76 to −3.33) <0.001   
  Mainly exercise 97.5 91.6 −5.97 −6.12 −5.40 (−6.62 to 4.18) <0.001 −0.86 (−1.84 to 0.13) 0.087
Hip circumference (cm)         
  Control 109.2 109.6 0.35 0.32     
  Diet 109.9 105.9 −3.99 −3.63 −4.31 (−5.30 to −3.32) <0.001   
  Mainly exercise 109.1 104.8 −4.31 −3.95 −4.67 (−5.65 to −3.68) <0.001 −0.36 (−1.15 to 0.44) 0.377
Body fat percentage (%)         
  Control 43.5 43.7 0.22 0.50     
  Diet 44.0 41.5 −2.54 −5.76 −2.82 (−3.54 to −2.11) <0.001   
  Mainly exercise 43.9 39.8 −4.11 −9.38 −4.38 (−5.10 to −3.67) <0.001 −1.56 (−2.14 to −0.98) <0.001
Total body fat (kg)         
  Control 33.8 34.0 0.17 0.49     
  Diet 34.0 30.3 −3.70 −10.89 −3.87 (−4.60 to −3.14) <0.001   
  Mainly exercise 34.0 28.8 −5.13 −15.11 −5.30 (−6.03 to −4.56) <0.001 −1.43 (−2.02 to −0.84) <0.001
Lean mass (kg)         
  Control 43.3 43.2 −0.10 −0.22     
  Diet 42.9 42.1 −0.78 −1.82 −0.71 (−1.14 to −0.23) <0.001   
  Mainly exercise 43.0 43.0 −0.06 −0.14 0.02 (−0.42 to 0.46) 0.930 0.73 (0.38–1.08) <0.001
VO2peak (ml/min)         
  Control 1761 1682 −78.6 −4.46     
  Diet 1752 1707 −44.9 −2.56 32.0 (−29.9 to 93.8) 0.310   
  Mainly exercise 1766 1885 118.7 6.72 198.4 (136.6–260.1) <0.001 166.4 (116.8–216.0) <0.001
SQUASH moderate and vigorous activityb (min/wk)         
  Control 270 300 −30.0 −11.1     
  Diet 184 170 −14.0 −7.6 −82.6 (−263.8 to 98.6) 0.370   
  Mainly exercise 248 495 247 99.6 221.7 (42.9–400.5) 0.015 304.3 (157.9–450.7) <0.001
  1. Baseline and follow-up measurements of complete cases (i.e. women with both baseline and follow-up measurements) are presented. Complete case data of weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences were available for 232 women; fat mass (kg and %) and lean mass for 230 women; VO2peak for 219 women; and SQUASH for 206 women
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, SQUASH Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity, VO 2peak peak oxygen uptake
  3. *P < 0.025 was considered significant for the comparison of both intervention groups vs control
  4. **P < 0.05 was considered significant for the comparison mainly exercise vs diet
  5. aTreatment effect (95 % confidence interval) is the regression coefficient of a linear regression analysis
  6. bBased on the SQUASH physical activity questionnaire, activities performed ≥4 metabolic equivalents