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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the SHAPE-2 study population

From: Effect of weight loss, with or without exercise, on body composition and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: the SHAPE-2 trial

  Control group Diet group Mainly exercise group
(n = 48) (n = 97) (n = 98)
  Mean (SD)
Age (yr) 60.0±4.9 60.5±4.6 59.5±4.9
Time since last menses (yr) 11.4±7.8 10.7±6.1 10.9±7.7
Education level,a n (%)    
  Low 15 (31.3 %) 27 (27.8 %) 33 (33.6 %)
  Middle 15 (31.3 %) 27 (27.8 %) 20 (20.4 %)
  High 18 (37.5 %) 42 (43.3 %) 44 (44.9 %)
First-degree family member(s) with breast cancer, n (%) 9 (18.8 %) 23 (23.7 %) 24 (24.5 %)
Anthropometrics    
  Weight (kg) 80.9±10.0 80.0±8.6 80.4±9.0
  BMI (kg/m2) 29.5±2.6 29.3±2.5 29.0±2.9
  Waist circumference (cm) 99.0±8.7 97.8±7.5 97.5±8.3
  Hip circumference (cm) 110±7.7 110±6.8 109±6.7
Body composition measured by DEXA    
  Body fat percentage (%) 43.6±5.0 44.1±3.8 43.8±4.0
  Total body fat (kg) 34.2±7.4 33.9±5.7 33.9±6.2
  Lean mass (kg) 43.4±3.9 42.7±4.0 43.1±4.1
Physical fitness and activity    
  VO2peak, relative (ml/kg/min) 22.1±4.7 21.9±4.0 21.8±3.7
  VO2peak (ml/min) 1751±363 1742±310 1749±293
  Physical activity monitor (min/day)b Median (IQR)   
   Sedentary 652 (600–691) 637 (606–685) 630 (593–678)
   Light 179 (164–226) 194 (175–214) 197 (157–229)
   Moderate 35 (25–39) 35 (22–46) 33 (27–46)
   Vigorous 0.33 (0.17–0.61) 0.35 (0.17–0.53) 0.29 (0.14–0.47)
  SQUASH moderate and vigorous activityc (min/wk) 270 (120–495) 184 (115–420) 248 (90–465)
Alcohol (g/day) 3.7 (0.0–11.7) 5.7 (0.0–10.0) 4.3 (0.0–10.0)
  Geometric mean (95 % CI)
Oestradiol (pg/ml) 4.10 (3.51–4.79) 4.15 (3.67–4.70) 3.70 (3.33–4.12)
Oestrone (pg/ml) 21.0 (18.4–24.0) 20.4 (18.9–22.0) 19.3 (17.7–21.1)
Free oestradiol (pg/ml) 0.10 (0.08–0.12) 0.10 (0.08–0.11) 0.09 (0.08–0.10)
Testosterone (pg/ml) 201 (174–233) 196 (178–215) 183 (167–200)
Androstenedione (pg/ml) 593 (508–692) 561 (508–620) 556 (497–622)
Free testosterone (pg/ml) 2.78 (2.36–3.28) 2.54 (2.31–2.79) 2.41 (2.21–2.63)
SHBG (nmol/L) 45.1 (39.7–51.3) 50.1 (45.7–55.0) 48.8 (44.7–53.3)
  1. Data on family history of breast cancer were available for 241 women (99.2 %), DEXA scan measurements for 240 women (98.8 %), VO2peak for 237 women (97.5 %), alcohol intake for 226 women (93.0 %), SQUASH questionnaires for 236 (97.1 %) women and accelerometer data for 161 of 215 women (74.9 %). All hormone levels were missing for one woman, and (free) oestradiol, (free) testosterone and androstenedione were also missing for one woman. Five baseline values for (free) oestradiol and oestrone were excluded (>42 pg/ml). All other data were available for all women (N = 243)
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, DEXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, SHAPE Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise study, SHBG sex hormone-binding globulin, SQUASH Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity, VO 2peak peak oxygen uptake
  3. aEducation levels: low = primary school and technical/professional school, middle = college degree, high = university degree
  4. bGT3X+ ActiGraph activity monitor measuring minutes per day of activity spent in each activity category
  5. cBased on the SQUASH physical activity questionnaire, activities performed ≥4 metabolic equivalents