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Table 2 Known breast cancer risk factors and their incorporation into existing risk prediction models

From: Can the breast screening appointment be used to provide risk assessment and prevention advice?

  Relative risk at extremes Gail Claus BRCAPRO Ford Tyrer-Cuzick BOADICEA
Prediction       
Personal information       
Age (20 to 70) 30 (20 versus 70) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Body mass index/weight gain 2 (loss versus gain from 30) [49] No No No Yes No
Alcohol intake 1.28 [28] (0 versus 4 units) daily No No No No No
Hormonal/reproductive factors       
Age of menarche 1.5 (<10 versus >16) [57] Yes No No Yes No
Age of first live birth 3 (>35 versus <19) [58] Yes No No Yes No
Age of menopause 2 (>55 versus <40) [57] No No No Yes No
Hormone replacement therapy use 2 (combined for 10 years current versus never) [59] No No No Yes No
Oral contraceptive pill use 1.24 (current versus never) [60] No No No No No
Breast feeding 0.8 (>4 years versus none) [61] No No No No No
Plasma oestrogen 6 [62] No No No No No
Personal breast disease       
Breast biopsies 2 [63] Yes No No Yes No
Atypical ductal hyperplasia 4 [63] Yes No No Yes No
Lobular carcinoma in situ 4 [63] No No No Yes No
Mammographic breast density 6 [64] Has been modelled in some studies No No Yes No
Family history       
First-degree relatives 3.6 [65] (2 versus none in FDR) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Second degree relatives 1.5 [65] No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Third-degree relatives   No No No No Yes
Age of onset of breast cancer 3 (<50 in sister versus none) [65] No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bilateral breast cancer 3 (<50 in FDR versus none) No No Yes Yes Yes
Ovarian cancer 1.5 [26] No No Yes Yes Yes
Male breast cancer 3 (<45 years in daughters) [64] No No Yes Yes Yes
Genetic testing       
BRCA1/2 15 No No Yes Yes Yes
SNPs 10 (top 1 % versus bottom 1 % for 77 SNPs) [67] Has been added in some studies No Soon Soon Soon
  1. BOADICEA, Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm; FDR, first-degree relative; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism. Table adapted from [68]