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Table 2 Univariate Cox proportional hazards model for disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival

From: Metformin increases survival in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-positive breast cancer patients with diabetes

  Disease-free survival Cancer-specific survival
  P-value Hazard ratio 95 % CI P-value Hazard ratio 95 % CI
Metformin       
 Metformin   1    1  
 Non-metformin versus metformin 0.05 1.50 1.0 to 2.25 0.02 1.69 1.07 to 2.68
 Non-DM versus metformin 0.39 0.87 0.64 to 1.19 0.29 0.83 0.58 to 1.18
Age, years       
 ≤50 0.652 0.97 0.87 to 1.09 0.023 0.83 0.73 to 0.96
BMI, kg/m2       
 High   1    1  
 Low versus high 0.141 1.24 0.94 to 1.64 0.362 1.17 0.84 to 1.64
 Normal versus high 0.132 0.91 0.80 to 1.03 0.064 0.87 0.75 to 1.01
Tumor size, cm       
 T ≥2 <0.001 2.59 2.30 to 2.91 <0.001 3.10 2.68 to 3.59
Node metastasis       
 Node-positive <0.001 2.79 0.49 to 3.13 <0.001 3.58 3.10 to 4.13
Estrogen receptor status       
 Positive 0.026 0.78 0.63 to 0.97 <0.001 1.85 1.62 to 2.11
Progesterone receptor status       
 Positive 0.001 0.72 0.60 to 0.87 <0.001 1.93 1.69 to 2.21
HER2 status       
 Positive <0.001 1.44 1.28 to 1.62 <0.001 1.56 1.37 to 1.79
Chemotherapy       
 Yes 0.098 0.82 0.65 to 1.04 <0.001 0.38 0.31 to 0.46
Endocrine therapy       
 Yes 0.108 0.83 0.67 to 1.04 <0.001 1.78 1.56 to 2.03
  1. HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2; DM, diabetes mellitus