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Table 1 Patient demographics and clinical characteristics by study group

From: Metformin increases survival in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-positive breast cancer patients with diabetes

  Metformin Non metformin Non diabetic P-value
(n = 202) (n = 184) (n = 6,581)
Number % Number % Number %
Age at operation, years        
 Median (range) 55(10.5)   59(10.2)   46(9.6)   <0.001
 <50 68 33.7 40 21.7 4370 66.4  
 ≥50 134 66.3 144 78.3 2211 33.6  
Body mass index, kg/m 2        
 <18.5 0 0 4 2.2 242 3.7 <0.001
 ≥18.5, <25 84 41.6 75 40.8 4644 70.8  
 ≥25 118 58.4 105 57.1 1669 25.5  
Serum glucose, mg/dL        
 Median 165.5   150.5     
 ≤150 83 40.7 93 50    0.068
 >150 121 59.3 93 50    
HbA1C, %        
 <7 51 32.1 29 35.8    0.566
 ≥0.5108 67.9 52 64.2     
Tumor size, cm        
 ≤2 100 49.5 93 50.5 3535 53.7 0.356
 >2 102 50.5 91 49.5 3046 46.3  
Node metastasis        
 No 110 54.5 110 59.8 3860 58.7 0.463
 Yes 92 45.5 74 40.2 2721 41.3  
Chemotherapy        
 No 66 32.7 80 43.5 1799 27.3 <0.001
 Yes 136 67.3 104 56.5 4782 72.7  
Endocrine therapy        
 No 58 28.7 54 29.3 2013 30.6 0.801
 Yes 144 71.3 130 70.7 4568 69.4  
Subgroup according to IHC using ER, PR and HER2        
 Hormone receptor+, HER2- 107 53.0 98 53.3 3390 51.5 0.385
 Hormone receptor+, HER2- 27 13.4 18 9.8 916 13.9  
 Hormone receptor-, HER2+ 35 17.3 25 13.6 928 14.1  
 Hormone receptor-, HER2- 33 16.3 43 23.4 1347 20.5  
  1. HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2; ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1C