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Table 4 Hazard ratios for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk for increased intake of 0.43 pg/kg body weight/day, according to quartiles of estimated dietary dioxin exposure (n = 63,830), 1993 to 2008

From: Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort

   Dietary dioxin exposure (pg/kg body weight/day)
Populations /0.43 <0.98 (ref) [0.98, 1.23] [1.23, 1.52] ≥1.52 P -trend
Premenopausal women c       
 Cases, n 446 104 105 117 120  
 HR (95% CI)a 1.03 (0.94, 1.13) 1.00 0.93 (0.71, 1.22) 0.96 (0.74, 1.25) 0.94 (0.73, 1.23) 0.5705
 HR (95% CI)b 0.98 (0.87, 1.12) 1.00 0.84 (0.63, 1.11) 0.83 (0.62, 1.11) 0.77 (0.54, 1.08) 0.7873
Postmenopausal women d       
 Cases, n 3019 775 749 731 764  
 HR (95% CI)a 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 1.00 0.97 (0.88, 1.08) 0.96 (0.87, 1.06) 1.03 (0.93, 1.14) 0.5134
 HR (95% CI)b 0.98 (0.93, 1.03) 1.00 0.94 (0.84, 1.04) 0.90 (0.80, 1.01) 0.93 (0.82, 1.06) 0.3827
ER+/PR+ e       
 Cases, n 1365 354 336 325 350  
 HR (95% CI)a 1.02 (0.96, 1.07) 1.00 0.96 (0.82, 1.11) 0.94 (0.81, 1.09) 1.03 (0.89, 1.20) 0.5837
 HR (95% CI)b 0.97 (0.90, 1.04) 1.00 0.91 (0.78, 1.06) 0.86 (0.73, 1.02) 0.91 (0.75, 1.10) 0.4193
ER+/PR- e       
 N cases 513 117 136 125 135  
 HR (95% CI)a 1.05 (0.96, 1.14) 1.00 1.17 (0.92, 1.50) 1.09 (0.85, 1.40) 1.20 (0.93, 1.53) 0.2780
 HR (95% CI)b 1.05 (0.93, 1.18) 1.00 1.16 (0.89, 1.49) 1.07 (0.81, 1.41) 1.19 (0.86, 1.63) 0.4341
ER-/PR- e       
 N cases 359 98 91 89 81  
 HR (95% CI)a 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) 1.00 0.93 (0.70, 1.23) 0.91 (0.68, 1.21) 0.84 (0.62, 1.13) 0.3261
 HR (95% CI)b 0.86 (0.74, 1.00) 1.00 0.84 (0.63, 1.13) 0.77 (0.56, 1.07) 0.65 (0.45, 0.96) 0.0463
  1. aAge-adjusted models; badjusted for age, height, body mass index, energy intake, education, physical activity, smoking status, menopausal status combined with use of menopausal hormone treatment, alcohol intake, age at menarche, use of oral contraceptives, use of progestin, age at menopause, age at first full-term pregnancy and number of live births, breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, history of personal benign breast disease and mammography; cresults for premenopausal breast cancer risk according to hormone receptor status were not presented due to the small number of cases; dER-/PR+ postmenopausal invasive breast cancer risk was not analyzed due to small number of cases (n = 73); en = 709 postmenopausal invasive breast cancer cases with missing hormone receptor status. HR, hazard ratio.