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Table 1 Generation of orthotopic patient-derived xenografts from primary breast cancer and metastatic tissue

From: Patient-derived xenograft models of breast cancer and their predictive power

Study Mouse strain Supportive conditions Stable take rate Tissue source IHC subtypes of PDX Correlation with engraftment PDX concordance with source tissue Metastases
Al-Hajj and colleagues [23], Liu and colleagues [76] NOD/SCID Estradiol NR Primary breast (6) 4 TNC NR NR 5/8 (62%) micrometastases
  NSG Etoposide i.p.   Pleural effusion (2) 2 HER2+    
   Matrigel    2 ER+    
Fleming and colleagues [36] NOD/SCID Estradiol NR TNC pleural effusion (2) NR Increased engraftment in abdominal versus thoracic mammary gland NR NR
   Etoposide i.p.       
   Matrigel       
DeRose and colleagues [25] NOD/SCID Estradiol 12/49 (27%) Primary breast (4) 5 TNC Similar engraftment for primary and metastatic tumors Histological PAM 50 expression profiling 10/12 to lymph node, lung and peritoneum
     Pleural effusion (7) 2 HER2+ TNC grew fastest Genomic  
     Ascites (1) 3 ER+/HER2+ Increased tumor growth with serial passage   
      2 ER+ Engraftment as a prognostic indicator of disease outcome   
Vaillant and colleagues [30], Oakes and colleagues [35] NSG Estradiol 37/158 (23%) Primary breast (37) 17 TNC TNC and HER2+ higher engraftment Histological NR
      13 ER+    
      2 ERPR+    
      5 HER2+    
Ma and colleagues [58] NOD/SCID Fibroblastsa NR Primary breast (1) 3 TNC NR PAM 50 expression profiling NR
     Ovarian metastasis (1)    Genomic  
     Brain metastasis (1)     
Kabos and colleagues [37] NOD/SCID Estradiol   Primary breast (6) 2 TNC Nonluminal higher take rate than luminal tumors Histological NR
  NSG Matrigel 10/24 (42%) Metastatic effusion (2) 8 ER+    
Zhang and colleagues [32] SCID/Bg Estradiol 6/32 (19%) in NSG mice, 1/38 SCID/Bg (no E2), 1/29 SCID/Bg (E2 + fibroblasts), 15/70 (21%) SCID/Bg (E2) Primary breast (22) 12 TNC TNC and grade III have higher take rate Histological 12/25 (48%) lung metastases
  NSG Fibroblastsa   Ascites (2) 3 HER2+   Clinical response  
     Pleural effusion (1) 2 ER+    
Li and colleagues [49] NOD/SCID Fibroblastsa 22/152 (13%) Primary breast 12 ER/HER2 NR Histological NR
     Nodal metastasis 2 HER2+   Immunohistochemical  
     Skin metastases/recurrence 7 ER+/HER2   Proteomic  
      1 ER+/HER+   Genomic  
Zhang and colleagues [71] NOD/SCID Matrigel NR Primary breast (6) 7 TNC NR Histological NR
     Soft tissue metastasis (1)    Biomarker expression  
        PIKC3A sequence  
        Genomic  
  1. Bg, beige; E2, estradiol; ER, estrogen receptor; HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2; IHC, immunohistochemistry; i.p., intraperitoneally; NSG, NOD/SCID/IL2γ-receptor null; NOD, nonobese diabetic; NR, not reported; PDX, patient-derived xenograft; PR, progesterone receptor; SCID, severe combined immunodeficiency; TNC, triple-negative cancer. aIrradiated and unirradiated for humanization.