Skip to main content

Table 5 Cross-classified coffee intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer a

From: Coffee and tea consumption and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study

  Decaffeinated coffee
Caffeinated coffee No consumption Consumption
No consumption Number of postmenopausal breast cancers/Number of participants 568/21239 287/9810
Adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI)c 0.89 (0.77-1.04) 0.97 (0.82-1.14)
Low consumptionb Number of postmenopausal breast cancers/Number of participants 625/20480 601/29716
  Adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI)c 0.88 (0.77-1.02) 1.00
Moderate consumptionb Number of postmenopausal breast cancers/Number of participants 836/27498 588/22347
Adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI)c 0.84 (0.74-0.97) 0.95 (0.83-1.08)
High consumptionb Number of postmenopausal breast cancers/Number of participants 540 19561 630/25632
Adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI)c 0.82 (0.71-0.95) 0.98 (0.87-1.11)
  1. aIncludes 176,373 participants with complete data on type of coffee intake, that is, France (n = 48,101), Germany (n = 27,411), Greece (n = 3,125), Italy (n = 11,737), Netherlands (n = 26,866), Spain (n = 6,589), and United Kingdom (52,544). Participants from Norway and Sweden are all non- consumers of decaffeinated coffee and were excluded. bThe cut-off values are based on country specific tertiles. cIncludes only postmenopausal breast cancers. Model is stratified by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first delivery, breastfeeding, menopausal status, ever use of postmenopausal hormones, smoking, education, physical activity level, alcohol intake, height, weight, energy intake from fat sources, energy intake from non-fat sources, saturated fat intake, fruits and vegetable intake, and tea intake. CI, confidence interval.