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Table 4 Decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer a

From: Coffee and tea consumption and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study

Daily decaffeinated coffee intake Total No intake of decaffeinated coffee Low intake b Moderate intake b High intake b P trend c Per 100 mls
No. of participants 176373 88868 43173 16798 27534   
No. of breast cancers 5272 2858 1088 515 811   
Premenopausal breast cancers 587 289 149 48 101   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)d   1.08 (0.79-1.49) 1.00 0.86 (0.56-1.32) 1.20 (0.90-1.60) 0.646 1.00 (0.94-1.06)
Postmenopausal cancers 4685 2569 939 467 710   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)e   0.89 (0.80-0.99) 1.00 1.01 (0.89-1.15) 0.97 (0.87-1.08) 0.128 1.01 (0.99-1.03)
ER+ and PR+ subtype 1749 1073 280 174 222   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)f   0.88 (0.73-1.05) 1.00 0.98 (0.79-1.21) 1.07 (0.89-1.30) 0.036 1.02 (0.99-1.06)
ER- and PR- subtype 512 304 93 51 64   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)g   0.69 (0.50-0.94) 1.00 0.92 (0.63-1.34) 0.72 (0.51-1.02) 0.705 0.97 (0.91-1.04)
Analysis by cohort-wide intake        
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)h   1.08 (0.76-1.53) 1.00 0.88 (0.62-1.27) 1.16 (0.84-1.60) 0.915 1.00 (0.94-1.06)
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)i   0.87 (0.75-1.01) 1.00 1.00 (0.86-1.16) 0.95 (0.83-1.10) 0.081 1.01 (0.99-1.03)
  1. aIncludes 176,373 participants with complete data on type of coffee intake, that is, France (n = 48,101), Germany (n = 27,411), Greece (n = 3,125), Italy (n = 11,737), Netherlands (n = 26,866), Spain (n = 6,589), and United Kingdom (52,544). Participants from Norway and Sweden are all non-consumers of decaffeinated coffee and were excluded. bCut-off points are based on country specific tertiles of decaffeinated coffee intake after exclusion of non-decaffeinated coffee consumers. c P for trend is computed by entering the categories as a continuous term (score variable: 0,1,2,3,4) in the Cox model. dIncluding only premenopausal breast cancers (that is, breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 50 years), and participants who were premenopausal at recruitment. Model is stratified by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first delivery, breastfeeding, smoking, education, physical activity level, alcohol intake, height, weight, energy intake from fat sources, energy intake from non-fat sources, saturated fat intake, fruits and vegetable intake, caffeinated coffee intake, and tea intake. eIncluding only postmenopausal breast cancers (excluding participants with premenopausal breast cancers). Model is stratified by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first delivery, breastfeeding, menopausal status at recruitment, ever use of postmenopausal hormones, smoking, education, physical activity level, alcohol intake, height, weight, energy intake from fat sources, energy intake from non-fat sources, saturated fat intake, fruits and vegetable intake, caffeinated coffee intake, and tea intake. fHormone receptor status was only known in approximately 67% of patients with breast cancer. This analysis includes only estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor positive postmenopausal breast cancers, fully adjusted as in model 5. gHormone receptor status was only known in approximately 67% of patients with breast cancer. This analysis includes only estrogen receptor negative and progesterone receptor negative postmenopausal breast cancers, fully adjusted as in model 5. hIncluding only premenopausal breast cancers. Using caffeinated coffee intake in cohort wide categories (no intake, quartile 1, quartile 2, quartile 3, quartile 4), and fully adjusted as in model 4. iIncluding only postmenopausal breast cancers. Using caffeinated coffee intake in cohort wide categories (no intake, quartile 1, quartile 2, quartile 3, quartile 4), and fully adjusted as in model 5. CI, confidence interval, ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor.