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Table 3 Caffeinated coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer a

From: Coffee and tea consumption and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study

Daily caffeinated coffee intake Total No intake of caffeinated coffee Low intake b Moderately low intake b Moderately high intake b High intake b P trend c Per 100 mls
No. of participants 226 368 35590 60772 46429 43565 40012   
No. of breast cancers 6794 1068 1783 1360 1356 1227   
Premenopausal breast cancers 724 102 189 159 133 141   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)d   1.14 (0.86-1.53) 1.00 1.23 (0.97-1.55) 1.01 (0.79-1.28) 1.19 (0.93-1.53) 0.547 1.00 (0.97-1.03)
Postmenopausal cancers 6070 966 1594 1201 1223 1086   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)e   1.00 (0.91-1.09) 1.00 0.89 (0.82-0.97) 0.97 (0.90-1.05) 0.90 (0.82-0.98) 0.029 0.98 (0.97-1.00)
ER+ and PR+ subtype 2142 386 602 363 416 375   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)f   0.93 (0.80-1.08) 1.00 0.85 (0.74-0.98) 0.96 (0.84-1.10) 0.84 (0.73-0.97) 0.140 0.98 (0.96-0.99)
ER- and PR- subtype 605 126 154 116 104 105   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)g   1.14 (0.88-1.48) 1.00 0.89 (0.69-1.16) 0.81 (0.62-1.05) 0.80 (0.61-1.05) 0.008 0.96 (0.93-1.00)
Analysis by cohort-wide intake         
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)h   1.12 (0.83-1.51) 1.00 1.17 (0.92-1.47) 0.97 (0.75-1.26) 1.11 (0.84-1.48) 0.989 1.00 (0.97-1.03)
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)i   1.01 (0.92-1.12) 1.00 0.96 (0.88-1.04) 0.97 (0.89-1.06) 0.91 (0.83-1.00) 0.051 0.98 (0.97-1.00)
  1. aIncludes 226,368 participants with complete data on type of coffee intake, that is, France (n = 48,101), Germany (n = 27,411), Greece (n = 3,125), Italy (n = 11,737), Netherlands (n = 26,866), Norway (n = 35,170), Spain (n = 6,589), Sweden (n = 14,825), and United Kingdom (n = 52,544). bCut-off points are based on country specific quartiles of caffeinated coffee intake after exclusion of non-caffeinated coffee consumers. c P for trend is computed by entering the categories as a continuous term (score variable: 0,1,2,3,4) in the Cox model. dIncluding only premenopausal breast cancers (that is, breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 50 years), and participants who were premenopausal at recruitment. Model is stratified by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first delivery, breastfeeding, smoking, education, physical activity level, alcohol intake, height, weight, energy intake from fat sources, energy intake from non-fat sources, saturated fat intake, fruits and vegetable intake, decaffeinated coffee intake, and tea intake. eIncluding only postmenopausal breast cancers (excluding participants with premenopausal breast cancers). Model is stratified by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first delivery, breastfeeding, menopausal status at recruitment, ever use of postmenopausal hormones, smoking, education, physical activity level, alcohol intake, height, weight, energy intake from fat sources, energy intake from non-fat sources, saturated fat intake, fruits and vegetable intake, decaffeinated coffee intake, and tea intake. fHormone receptor status was only known in approximately 67% of patients with breast cancer. This analysis includes only estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor positive postmenopausal breast cancers, fully adjusted as in model 5. gHormone receptor status was only known in approximately 67% of patients with breast cancer. This analysis includes only estrogen receptor negative and progesterone receptor negative postmenopausal breast cancers, fully adjusted as in model 5. hIncluding only premenopausal breast cancers. Using caffeinated coffee intake in cohort wide categories (no intake, quartile 1, quartile 2, quartile 3, quartile 4), and fully adjusted as in model 4. iIncluding only postmenopausal breast cancers. Using caffeinated coffee intake in cohort wide categories (no intake, quartile 1, quartile 2, quartile 3, quartile 4), and fully adjusted as in model 5. CI, confidence interval, ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor.