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Table 2 Total coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer a

From: Coffee and tea consumption and risk of pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study

Daily coffee intake Total No intake Low intake b Moderately low intake b Moderately high intake b High intake b P trend c Per 100 mls
Number of participants 335060 26734 87501 71684 79838 69303   
Number of breast cancers 10198 813 2542 2213 2518 2112   
Premenopausal breast cancers 1064 81 246 234 251 252   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)d   1.08 (0.83-1.40) 1.00 1.23 (1.02-1.48) 1.11 (0.93-1.34) 1.15 (0.96-1.39) 0.272 1.00 (0.98-1.03)
Postmenopausal breast cancers 9134 732 2296 1979 2267 1860   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)e   1.02 (0.94-1.12) 1.00 0.97 (0.91-1.03) 0.97 (0.92-1.03) 0.95 (0.89-1.01) 0.055 0.99 (0.98-0.99)
ER+ and PR+ breast cancers 3206 285 860 670 776 615   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)f   0.97 (0.84-1.11) 1.00 0.96 (0.86-1.06) 0.98 (0.88-1.08) 0.91 (0.81-1.01) 0.187 0.99 (0.97-1.00)
ER- and PR- breast cancers 1052 93 269 222 257 211   
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)g   0.99 (0.78-1.26) 1.00 0.84 (0.70-1.01) 0.89 (0.74-1.06) 0.86 (0.71-1.05) 0.135 0.99 (0.97-1.01)
Analysis by cohort-wide intake         
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)h   0.99 (0.76-1.29) 1.00 1.01 (0.84-1.20) 1.01 (0.83-1.83) 1.09 (0.88-1.35) 0.501 1.00 (0.98-1.03)
Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI)i   1.03 (0.94-1.13) 1.00 0.99 (0.92-1.06) 0.98 (0.91-1.05) 0.95 (0.88-1.02) 0.067 0.99 (0.98-0.99)
  1. aIncludes all 335,060 participants. bCut-off points are based on country specific quartiles of total coffee intake after exclusion of non-coffee consumers. c P for trend is computed by entering the categories as a continuous term (score variable: 0,1,2,3,4) in the Cox model. dIncluding only premenopausal breast cancers (that is, breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 50 years), and participants who were premenopausal at recruitment. Model is stratified by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first delivery, breastfeeding, smoking, education, physical activity level, alcohol intake, height, weight, energy intake from fat sources, energy intake from non-fat sources, saturated fat intake, fruits and vegetable intake, and tea intake. eIncluding only postmenopausal breast cancers (excluding participants with premenopausal breast cancers). Model is stratified by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for age at menarche, ever use of oral contraceptives, age at first delivery, breastfeeding, menopausal status at recruitment, ever use of postmenopausal hormones, smoking, education, physical activity level, alcohol intake, height, weight, energy intake from fat sources, energy intake from non-fat sources, saturated fat intake, fruits and vegetable intake, and tea intake. fHormone receptor status was only known in approximately 67% of patients with breast cancer. This analysis includes only estrogen receptor positive and progesterone receptor positive postmenopausal breast cancers, fully adjusted as in model 5. gHormone receptor status was only known in approximately 67% of patients with breast cancer. This analysis includes only estrogen receptor negative and progesterone receptor negative postmenopausal breast cancers, fully adjusted as in model 5. hIncluding only premenopausal breast cancers. Using total coffee intake in cohort wide categories (no intake, quartile 1, quartile 2, quartile 3, quartile 4), and fully adjusted as in model 4. iIncluding only postmenopausal breast cancers. Using total coffee intake in cohort wide categories (no intake, quartile 1, quartile 2, quartile 3, quartile 4), and fully adjusted as in model 5. CI, confidence interval; ER, estrogen receptor; PR, progesterone receptor.