Association of pCR and prognosis with chemotherapy-induced changes on breast cancer immune cell subpopulations. A) significant association of higher chemotherapy-related changes of CD3, CD4, CD20 and CD8 populations with pCR; chemotherapy-induced decrease of CD3, CD4 and CD20 was significantly higher in those patients achieving pCR. Statistical analysis: Mann–Whitney U-test. *, P ≤0.05. B) Kaplan-Meier disease free and overall survival curves according to chemotherapy-induced CD3 decrease (log-rank test). C) Kaplan-Meier showing the prognostic effect of post-chemotherapy cluster group (Y-Z) among the three pre-treatment cluster groups (A-C), and supporting that the prognostic impact of post-treatment immune cell profile was independent of the baseline immune cell cluster group (stratified log-rank test). pCR, pathological complete response.