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Table 1 Major gaps in our knowledge concerning risk assessment and prevention of breast cancer

From: Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer

A. Gaps in risk estimation
A1. The best standard model to estimate risk in the general population and in women at high risk
A2. What additional factors will give maximal improvement in a model?
A3. Prediction of risk in the proportion of women with none of the current risk factors
B. Gaps in preventive therapy and lifestyle prevention
B1. Prediction of women who will benefit from current preventive therapy
B2. New agents for women who will not benefit from current preventive therapy
B3. Optimal measures for weight control and exercise: timings of this in the life course, who to target, and type of interventions
C. Gaps in understanding the biology of breast cancer risk
C1. Mechanisms of the effects of pregnancy on risk
C2. Mechanism of the lack of involution in some breasts with menopause?
C3. Mechanism of energy restriction on reduction of risk
D. Gaps in implementing known preventive measures
D1. Determination of the approximately 10% of women at high and moderate risk in populations
D2. How to make preventive therapy available to the subset of women who will benefit
D3. Optimal weight control and exercise programs for women at any age and in all countries and how we engage individuals in cancer prevention throughout the life course