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Table 1 Recent large studies investigating the impact of age on breast cancer prognosis

From: Biology of breast cancer in young women

  Young age, years (n) Control age, years (n) Outcome definition Impact of young age on outcomea Factors controlled in multivariate model
Hazard ratio 95% CI
Gnerlich et al. 2009 [5] <40 (15,548) ≥40 (227,464) BC-specific survival 1.39 1.34-1.45 T, N, grade, race, marital status, ER, PgR, local therapy
Fredholm et al. 2009 [6] <35 (378) 50-69 (13,486) BC-specific survival 1.76 1.36-2.28 T, N, grade, ER, multifocality, local and systemic therapy
Cancello et al. 2010 [7] <35 (315) 35-50 (2,650) BC-related event 1.7 1.33-2.18 T, N, grade, histology, ER, HER2, PgR, ki67 vascular invasion
Han et al. 2010 [8] <35 (1,443) 40-50 (6,354) Overall survival 30-34 years: 1.43 26–29 years: 1.97 1.18-1.74 1.48-2.62 T, N, ER, systemic therapy
Azim et al. 2012 [9] ≤40 (339) >40 (2,562) Relapse-free survival 1.34 1.10-1.63 T, N, grade, BC molecular subtype, systemic therapy
  1. aIn multivariate models. BC, breast cancer; CI, confidence interval; ER, estrogen receptor; n, number; N, nodal involvement; PgR, progesterone receptor; T, tumor size.