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Table 3 Risk factors for arm lymphedema stratified by race/ethnicity

From: Risk factors for self-reported arm lymphedema among female breast cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study

    Non-Hispanic white Black   Hispanic white  
Characteristics Categories N LE (%) HR (95% CI)a N LE (%) HR (95% CI)a N LE (%) HR (95% CI)a Pfor interactionb
Age at diagnosis (years) 35-44 56 19 (33.9) 1.00 53 21 (39.6) 1.00 14 3 (21.4) 1.00  
45-49 65 16 (24.6) 0.90 (0.45 - 1.77) 46 20 (43.5) 1.00 (0.53 - 1.92) 17 7 (41.2) 2.23 (0.50 - 10.07)  
50-54 112 28 (25.0) 0.77 (0.42 - 1.40) 48 17 (35.4) 0.87 (0.44 - 1.72) 15 1 (6.7) 0.40 (0.04 - 4.30)  
55-59 77 17 (22.1) 0.74 (0.38 - 1.44) 37 13 (35.1) 0.69 (0.33 - 1.44) 14 5 (35.7) 2.77 (0.56 - 13.77)  
60-64 61 8 (13.1) 0.42 (0.17 - 1.00) 42 11 (26.2) 0.60 (0.26 - 1.34) 9 4 (44.4) 9.17 (1.43 - 58.94) 0.24
Surgery type Partial/less than total mastectomy/
surgery, NOS
272 53 (19.5) 1.00 123 43 (35.0) 1.00 47 12 (25.5) 1.00  
Total/modified radical mastectomy 99 35 (35.4) 1.58 (1.02 - 2.45) 103 39 (37.9) 1.15 (0.72 - 1.81) 22 8 (36.4) 2.16 (0.71 - 6.54) 0.39
Number of excised lymph nodes 0 88 3 (3.4) 0.10 (0.03 - 0.32) 41 5 (12.2) 0.41 (0.16 - 1.10) 14 1 (7.1) 0.09 (0.01 - 0.80)  
1-9c 100 18 (18.0) 0.48 (0.28 - 0.82) 49 13 (26.5) 0.64 (0.35 - 1.18) 13 1 (7.7) 0.09 (0.01 - 0.70)  
10+ 183 67 (36.6) 1.00 136 64 (47.1) 1.00 42 18 (42.9) 1.00 0.48
Chemotherapy No 250 43 (17.2) 1.00 124 27 (21.8) 1.00 39 13 (33.3) 1.00  
Yes 121 45 (37.2) 1.25 (0.80 - 1.95) 102 55 (53.9) 2.69 (1.61 - 4.50) 30 7 (23.3) 0.69 (0.24 - 2.03) 0.01
Body mass index (kg/m2) <25 192 42 (21.9) 1.00 89 23 (25.8) 1.00 25 5 (20.0) 1.00  
25-29.9 114 26 (22.8) 1.05 (0.64 - 1.73) 76 32 (42.1) 1.58 (0.90 - 2.78) 30 9 (30.0) 2.25 (0.65 - 7.72)  
30+ 65 20 (30.8) 1.50 (0.86 - 2.61) 61 27 (44.3) 1.65 (0.91 - 2.98) 14 6 (42.9) 3.94 (0.99 - 15.75) 0.46
Hypertension No 292 73 (25.0) 1.00 119 30 (25.2) 1.00 57 19 (33.3) 1.00  
Yes 79 15 (19.0) 0.95 (0.52 - 1.74) 107 52 (48.6) 2.73 (1.65 - 4.53) 12 1 (8.3) 0.21 (0.02 - 2.00) <0.001
  1. aRace/ethnicity-specific HR is adjusted for all of the other variables in this table. bP value for interaction between a characteristic and race/ethnicity is derived from a likelihood ratio test. c‘1 to 9’ category includes ‘at least one lymph node removed’. LE, lymphedema; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified.