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Table 2 Participant characteristics and their associations with early-onset and late-onset lymphedema

From: Risk factors for self-reported arm lymphedema among female breast cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics Categories Early LE/ at risk Late LE/ at risk Early-onset LE HR (95% CI)a Late-onset LE HR (95% CI)a Pfor interactionb
Breast cancer and treatment       
Age at diagnosis (years) 35-44 18/123 25/105 1.00 1.00  
45-49 22/128 21/106 1.19 (0.63 - 2.24) 0.83 (0.46 - 1.51)  
50-54 29/175 17/146 1.19 (0.65 - 2.17) 0.51 (0.27 - 0.96)  
55-59 20/128 15/108 1.04 (0.54 - 2.00) 0.59 (0.31 - 1.12)  
60-64 16/112 7/96 1.03 (0.50 - 2.10) 0.31 (0.13 - 0.74) 0.15
Per unit of age    1.00 (0.97 - 1.03) 0.95 (0.92 - 0.98) 0.02
    P trend = 0.91 P trend = 0.002  
Surgery type Partial/less than total mastectomy/surgery, NOS 57/442 51/385 1.00 1.00  
Total mastectomy/modified radical mastectomy 48/224 34/176 1.41 (0.95 - 2.09) 1.32 (0.84 - 2.06) 0.82
Number of excised lymph nodes 0 5/143 4/138 0.20 (0.08 - 0.51) 0.13 (0.05 - 0.37)  
1-9c 19/162 13/143 0.57 (0.34 - 0.95) 0.36 (0.20 - 0.65)  
10+ 81/361 68/280 1.00 1.00 0.44
Per lymph node    1.04 (1.01 - 1.06) 1.06 (1.03 - 1.09) 0.20
    P trend = 0.003 P trend <0.001  
Chemotherapy No 47/413 36/366 1.00 1.00  
Yes 58/253 49/195 1.28 (0.86 - 1.91) 1.77 (1.13 - 2.78) 0.27
Sociodemographic factors       
Race/ethnicity Non-Hispanic white (NM, WW) 50/371 38/321 1.00 1.00  
Black (LA) 45/226 37/181 1.08 (0.70 - 1.65) 1.26 (0.79 - 2.02)  
Hispanic white (NM) 10/69 10/59 0.90 (0.45 - 1.78) 1.24 (0.61 - 2.50) 0.77
Health-related factors       
Body mass index prior to diagnosis (kg/m2) <25 37/306 33/269 1.00 1.00  
25-29.9 36/220 31/184 1.24 (0.78 - 1.98) 1.25 (0.76 - 2.06)  
30+ 32/140 21/108 1.64 (1.00 - 2.67) 1.52 (0.87 - 2.66) 0.97
Per unit of BMI    1.03 (1.00 - 1.07) 1.04 (1.00 - 1.08) 0.91
    P trend = 0.05 P trend = 0.07  
Hypertension No 63/468 59/405 1.00 1.00  
Yes 42/198 26/156 1.65 (1.08 - 2.54) 1.30 (0.80 - 2.13) 0.44
  1. aHR is adjusted for all the other variables in the table. bP value for interaction between a characteristic and timing of lymphedema onset (early versus late) is derived from a likelihood ratio test. c‘1 to 9’ category includes ‘at least one lymph node removed’. LE, lymphedema; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; NOS, not otherwise specified; NM, New Mexico; WW, Western Washington; LA, Los Angeles County; BMI, body mass index.